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Findopportunities.Anticipatechallenges.Planforthefuture.2013FORETHOUGHT Findopportunities.Anticipatechallenges.Planforthefuture.2013FORETHOUGHT FOREWORD WasnttherecentelectionsupposedtobringussomecertaintyItseemsasifthingsaremoreuncertainthanever.Ourfederalgovernmentiscontinuingtodebatetaxandspendingcutshealthcarereformseemsheadedinmanydifferentdirectionsjobcreationisstillslowerthanwedallliketoseeandthediscussionaroundguncontrolandmentalhealthisnowattheforefrontofanationaldebate.Theworldisgettingmorecomplicatedeverydayandthefutureisonlygettingmoredifculttonavigate.Whilewedontclaimtoknowthefuturewearepleasedtoprovideguidanceonsomeofthelegalissueswebelieveourclientsandfriendsmayfacein2013.ThisisthethirdyearweveproducedForethoughtapublicationofforward-lookingissuesfromtheattorneysatWhyteHirschboeckDudekS.C.andwehopeitcontinuestobeavaluableresourceforyou.FromhowtobuildafamilybusinesslegacytohowinformalcommunicationscanleadtoanenforceablecontractualamendmenttoemploymentconsiderationsduringPresidentObamassecondtermthe2013editioncoversrelevanttopicsthatwethinkareworthyourtimetoconsider.Pleaseacceptthisspecialpublicationwithourbestwishesforarewarding2013anddonthesitatetodropmeanoteatpeberlewhdlaw.comtosuggestatopicforafutureForethoughteditionortoletmeknowhowwecanserveyoubetter.InthistimeofuncertaintyyoucancountonWHDtohelpyouworkthroughtheissuesandobstaclesyoufaceandtoachieveClientSuccess.SincerelyPaulJ.EberleChiefExecutiveP.S.Keepinmindthatthisbookwaswrittenweekspriortodistribution.Thereforeitispossiblethatthereareupdatestosomeoftheissuesmentioned.Asalwaysweencourageyoutoconsultwithyourattorneypriortotakinganykindoflegalaction. TABLEOFCONTENTS CORPORATE9ExpandingYourBusinessAbroadAFewBasicsDanielB.Geraghty11BuildingaFamilyBusinessLegacyTheU.S.EconomyDependsonSuccessSverreDavidRoangFINANCE14DoddFrankActAThreattoMainstreamConsumerCreditMarciVanAdestineandEdwardJ.HeiserHUMANRESOURCES18ABumpyRoadAheadforEmployersExpectedEmploymentLawDevelopmentsDuringObamasSecondTermFrankA.Gumina21PunitiveConsequencesUninsuredWorkersCompensationPenaltyClaimsAgainstEmployersMaryeveHeathandMaryBethHughes23DeferredActionforChildhoodArrivalsWhatEmployersNeedtoKnowTiffanyL.HutchensINTELLECTUALPROPERTY26TakeHeedOInventorBewaretheIdesofMarchTedJ.BarthelandThomasJ.Pienkos28WhyareIntellectualPropertyNoticesSoImportantElisabethTownsendBridgeLITIGATION31WrittenContractsareNotAlwaysSetinStoneErinM.Keesecker33StateVentureCapitalBillintheWorksThomasJ.SpringerandGabrielleB.Adams36IsitasEasyasClickingIAcceptEnforcingStandardTermsinElectronicSalesContractsUsingClick-WrapAgreementsKarenL.TidwallandPamelaM.SchmidtREALESTATEENVIRONMENTAL39CatchtheWaveWisconsinsWaterResourcesCanProvideOpportunitiesforBusinessesPhillipR.Bower42HUDCerticationforCondominiumAssociationsWhyUnitOwnersShouldCareDanielJ.Miske44AbouttheAuthors 8WHDFORETHOUGHTCORPORATE CORPORATE9WrittenbyDanielB.GeraghtyAstechnologyhasmadetheworldasmallerplacethereasonsandopportunitiesfordoingbusinessabroadhavebecomecommonplace.Whethertheexpansionisamarketingstrategyamanufacturingstrategyasupplystrategyortiedtoanotherreasonbusinessesgoingabroadmustbemindfulofadjustmentstothenormandtobarriersorobstaclesthattheymayface.Alittleforethoughtbeforemakingthemovewillgoalongwaytowardavoidingproblems.Followingareafewbasiclegalandtaxconsiderationsfordoingbusinessabroad.LegalBarriersandOtherGovernmentalRegulationsThisobviousquestionneedstobeconsideredearlyonintheprocess.ForexampleportablegeneratorsthataremadeandsoldintheUnitedStatesmayneedtobene-tunedforexporttotheUnitedKingdom.InadditionthemodelforsellingintheUnitedStatesforexamplethroughindependentsalesrepresentativesmaynotlegallyworkintheUnitedKingdomorbeacommonlyacceptedbusinesspractice.CulturalDifferencesWhilesomecountriesaremarkedlydifferentthantheUnitedStatesothersaremoreinlinewiththewaysofdoingbusinesshere.DoingbusinessinGermanyforexampleisarelativelystructuredandknownprocess.ToexpandinBrazilorcertainotherLatinAmericancountrieshoweverisconsiderablydifferentandtheprocesscanbeuncertainatthestart.ForexamplebusinessesexpandinginthehospitalityindustryinNicaraguaareexemptfromincometaxfor10years.Howeverifthebusinessissoldbeforethe10yearsNicaraguamayimposethetaxasabacktaxatthetimeofthesaleunlessthetaxingauthoritiesapproveofthesale.Onitsfaceanofferofnotaxfor10yearssoundslikeaveryattractivereasontoexpandinNicaragua.Therealitywhichmaynotbereadilyapparentmaybecompletelydifferent.DutiesandOtherSimilarTransactionTaxesManytimesadutywillbechargedonimportinggoodstoacountry.Inadditionothertransactionaltaxeswillbeimposedatvariouspointsincommerce.Itisessentialtounderstandtheirpotentialapplication.ForexamplewhilenotyetprevalentintheUnitedStatesnearlyallcountriesimposewhatisknownasavalueaddedtaxVAT.Thisisataximposeduponasaleofpropertythroughoutthecommercialprocesswithaseriesofcreditsthatultimatelyshifttheburdenoftaxtotheenduser.Ratesof20arenotuncommon.Ifabusinesssellstoanotherbusinessitiscriticaltounderstandthatacreditisavailableandhowtoobtainthecredit.EXPANDINGYOURBUSINESSABROADAFEWBASICS 10WHDFORETHOUGHTTaxesTheU.S.TaxCodeiscomplicated.Puttingtherulestoworkwithanothercountrystaxregimeisevenmorecomplicated.TheUnitedStateshasanextensivenetworkoftaxtreatieswithvariouscountrieswiththegeneralgoalofthetreatiestoeliminatedoubletaxation.Ifabusinessdoublesitsprotsthroughinternationalexpansionbutitstaxesalsodoubletheexpansionwillnotbeconsideredsuccessful.Spendingtimeupfronttodetermineaproperstructureisessentialtominimizingtheimpactoftwotaxingjurisdictions.ThechoiceofalegalentityinaforeigncountrywilldeterminehowtheentityistaxedbothinthatcountryandintheUnitedStates.InadditionitisessentialtoconsiderhowprotswillbereturnedtotheUnitedStates.Thiscouldincludesuchbasicquestionsashowtocapitalizetheinitialinvestmentbeitdebtorequityorwhethertochargeanafliateforintellectualproperty.ProtectIntellectualPropertyItgoeswithoutsayingthatmovingintellectualpropertyoffshoreexposesittomorerisk.Thelegalissuesvarygreatlyfromcountrytocountryandpreparationisessentialtoprotectingtheintellectualproperty.Onthepracticalsidetherearethingsabusinesscandotoprovideprotection.Forexampleintellectualpropertycanbebrokenintosubgroupssothatthereislessriskthattheintellectualpropertywillbestolen.ManycompaniesinChinaremoveallintellectualpropertyfromtheircomputerserverseveryevening.UnderstandtheCloudDoingbusinessinthecloudhasbecomemoreandmorecommon.ThecloudorcloudcomputingisatermusedforanythingthatinvolvesdeliveringhostedservicesovertheInternet.Whilethelawinthisareaisrelativelyundevelopedhavingapresenceinthecloudraisesmanyissues.ForexampledoesacloudpresencecreatepotentialliabilityinajurisdictionWillacloudpresencesubjectabusinesstotaxDoeshavingapresencemeanthebusinessisrequiredtocomplywithvariousdatasecrecylawsapplicableinaparticularcountryUnderstandEmploymentRelationshipsManybusinessesexpandinitiallybysettingupanetworkofindependentsalesrepresentativesinaforeignjurisdiction.WhiletheymaybeconsideredindependentsalesrepresentativesintheUnitedStatesitisimportanttounderstandwhatthatrelationshipisintheforeigncountry.Forexampleifthesalesrepresentativeonlyworksforonebusinessandexclusivelysellsthatcompanysproductthatpersonmaybethebusinessemployee.Thiscouldresultinanemploymentrelationshipandlong-lastingliabilityforsocialtaxesandotherbenets.Inadditionhavinganemployeeinaforeigncountrymaysubjectthebusinesstoincometaxinthatforeigncountry.PracticePatienceWhatiscommonplaceintheUnitedStatesisnotinmanypartsoftheworld.ForexamplenearlyanylawyerintheUnitedStatescansetupacompanyandhelpopenabankaccountthesameday.HoweverinBelgiumthesameactioncantakeamonthormoreandtheclientmayberequiredtopersonallyappearbeforeanotaryoranotherofcial.PrepareforDisputeResolutionUnfortunatelylitigationhappensbothdomesticallyandabroad.Itisveryimportanttoestablishtheforumandgoverninglawforresolutionofanyoffshoredisputes.Partiestypicallyagreetoarbitratedisputesinaneutrallocationsothatneitherhasahomecourtadvantage.ConclusionVarioustechnologicaladvanceshavemadedoinginternationalbusinessmuchmorecommonplace.Aswithanynewventureitisimportanttofullyplanforanoffshoreventure.Whileitisimpossibletoplanforeverycontingencyawell-thought-outplanshouldmakeamoveabroadmoresuccessful.n CORPORATE11WrittenbySverreDavidRoangManyfamiliesdreamofthepossibilityofbuildingabusinessenterprisethatcansupportandbeenjoyedbymanygenerationsofthefamily.Butmakingimportantandsometimesnecessarytransitionsalongthewaycanbedifcult.Manyadvisersknowthebesttechniquestomakethosetransitionsinatax-efcientandlegallybenecialmatteryetitisstillnotoriouslydifculttomaintainafamilybusinessthroughsucceedinggenerations.Infactmostbusinessesdonotmakeitpasttwoorthreegenerations.Fromshirtsleevestoshirtsleevesinthreegenerationsisawell-knownsayingintheUnitedStatesthatrepresentsthisdifculty.Therearesimilarsayingsinculturesaroundtheworldsuggestingthatthisunfortunatecycleisauniversalhumanphenomenon.Thiscyclemustbebrokenforthegoodoftheentireeconomy.Anestimated80to90ofthecountrysbusinessesarefamilybusinessesandanastonishingone-thirdofFortune500companiesarefamilyowned.Morethan60oftheU.S.grossdomesticproductcomesfromfamilybusinessesandtheyemploymorethan60ofthecountrysworkforce.InotherwordstheoverallU.S.economyneedsfamilybusinessestothrive.SowhatkeepsasuccessionplanfrombeingtrulygreatSomebestpracticeshaveemerged.Herearethetop10questionseveryfamilybusinessshouldbeaskingtoreachforlong-termsuccess.1.DowehaveanindependentboardofdirectorsTimeandagainresearchhasshownthatthekeytolong-termsuccessforfamilybusinessesfromgenerationtogenerationistheestablishmentofanindependentboard.Thisisadifcultdecisionformanyentrepreneurswhoareaccustomedtorunningeveryaspectoftheirbusinessbutgoodbusinessgovernanceiscriticaltovalidateandbringperspectivetothedirectionofthebusiness.2.DowehaveanownershipcouncilToomanyfamilybusinessesfailtorecognizethattheneedsanddesiresofthebusinessownersoftendifferfromtheneedsanddesiresofthebusiness.Inadditiontogoodcorporategovernancesuccessfulfamilybusinesseshaveestablishedgoodgovernanceproceduresfortheowners.Stickyissuessuchasvotingofownershipinterestsandownerexitsfromthebusinessbecomefareasierwithgoodproceduresestablishedinadvance.Astheownershipgrowstoincludefar-ungcousinstheseownershipgovernanceBUILDINGAFAMILYBUSINESSLEGACYTHEU.S.ECONOMYDEPENDSONSUCCESS 12WHDFORETHOUGHTstructuresbecomeevenmorecriticaltondandmaintainthecommoninterestsoftheowners.3.DowehaveafamilycouncilManyfamilieswhoownbusinessesmakethemistakeofdoingagreatjobofactivelygoverningthebusinessandownershipissuesbutnotthefamilyissues.Eachsystemfamilybusinessandownershipdeservesactiveattentionandgovernance.4.HaveweplannedforthenancialcapitalneedsofthebusinessandtheownersSuccessfulbusinessownersunderstandcapitalplanningforthebusiness.Howevertheliquidityneedsoftheownersandthebusinessshiftovertimeandsuccessfulfamilybusinessesactivelyplanforthesechangestoensurethatthebusinesshasadequatecapitaltothriveandtheownersrealizeanadequatereturntoliveandretire.5.DowehaveaplantoadvancethefamilysintellectualcapitalEducationoftheyoungergenerationsiscriticaltothelong-termsuccessandwealthofthefamily.Successfulfamiliesplanforanddemandbroadeducationandexperiencefromtheirchildrenandgrandchildrenrequiringthemtogainsignicantworkexperienceoutsideofthebusinessbeforetheyareallowedtojointhebusiness.Permittingeveryfamilymembertojointhebusinessregardlessofeducationandexperienceisfoolhardyasisexpectingthateveryfamilymemberwilljointhebusiness.Truesuccessisfoundwhenthepassionsofafamilymemberareinlinewithandcanadvancethefamilybusiness.6.ArewetakingcareofourfamilyInadditiontoeducationandexperiencehealthyfamiliesaremoresuccessful.Thereforesuccessfulfamiliesmakesurethatallthreetypesofthefamilyscapitalnancialintellectualandhumanarepreservedandadvancing.7.Doweunderstandthekeybalancepointsinourfamily-businesssystemAsnotedabovethefamilywhoownsabusinessisacomplexsystemthatrequiresworktoestablishtherightbalanceamongthevariousinterestsi.e.arewebalancingthenancialneedsofthefoundinggenerationwiththecapitalneedsofthebusiness.Successfulfamiliesidentifyandactivelymanagethebalancepointsamongthesesystems.Forexamplewhohelpstheboardofdirectorstoeffectivelyworkandcommunicatewiththebusinessowners8.DowehaveafamilyconstitutionEstablishingandwritingdownaworkingfamilyconstitutioncanhelpguidedecisionsthataffecteachofthepointsdiscussedabove.Afamilyconstitutioncanalsobeacriticalguidetothosewhoaremanagingthebusinessnottomentiontheadviserstothebusinesstomakesurethebusinessandsuccessionplansremainalignedwiththefamilyvalues.9.ArewecondentinourteamofadvisersFamilieswhomustnavigatetheprocessoftransitioningabusinesscanndgreatvalueinhavingadviserswhounderstandtheuniquechallengesfacedbyfamilybusinessesandwhoarepassionateabouthelpingfamiliesthrive.Findingadviserswhoenjoyworkingtogethertondcreativesolutionswillbringthebestresults.10.HowmuchtimedowethinkthiswilltakeSuccessfultransitionsofbusinessesovergenerationsspandecadesandinsomecasescenturies.Decisionsmadenowcanaffectmanygenerationsandthereisnosimpleanswer.Rathereachfamilymustnditsownpath.Thisjourneytakestimeandsuccessfulfamiliesndpleasureintheprocessknowingthattheyarebuildingatrueandlastinglegacyfortheirfamily.Theanswerstothequestionsabovewillbedifferentforeachfamilybutfamiliesmustkeepaskingthem.Doingsowillhelpleadtotrueandlastingfamilywealth.n FINANCE13FINANCE 14WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyMarciVanAdestineandEdwardJ.HeiserEveryoneisawarethatoneofthemainthrustsoftheDodd-FrankActDodd-Frankpassedin2010wastoregulateWallStreetbankinginstitutionsandcurtailso-calledabusestothecreditmarketsthatallegedlywerecausedbylargebankinginstitutions.Perhapslessknownhoweverbutcertainlyoffargreaterlong-termimpactisDodd-Frankseffectoneverydayconsumercredit.Dodd-FrankhascreatedoneofthelargestnewbureaucraciesinyearstheConsumerFinancialProtectionBureauCFPBwithvirtuallyunfetteredauthorityovertheconsumercreditmarkets.TheCFPBhassofarissuedliterallythousandsofpagesofregulationsregardingeverydayconsumercreditnottheactivitiesofWallStreetinstitutionsintheinternationalcreditmarkets.AsmuchasconsumercreditorsareconcernedabouttheabilityoftheCFPBtoissuemyriadregulationsinconnectionwithalmosteveryaspectofconsumercreditofmoreconcernperhapsisthesmallbutloudchorusadvocatingthattheCFPBhasthemandatetotakevirtuallyanyactiontopreventcreditorsfromcommittingorengaginginanunfairdeceptiveorabusiveactorpracticeinconnectionwithconsumercredittransactionsaccordingtoSection1031ofDodd-Frank.Theprohibitionofunfairanddeceptiveactsorpracticesisnotnewindeedthoseinthenancialservicesindustryandotherindustriesaswelllongagoshort-handedthisdoctrineasUDAPUnfairandDeceptiveActsorPractices.Abusivehoweverisanentirelynewandlargelyundenedstandard.TwoViewsChangingUDAPtoUDAAPFindingMeaningintheExtraAPositionofSomeConsumerDebtorAdvocates.Someconsumerdebtoradvocatesargueforabroadpaternalisticdenitionoftheabusivestandard.Asageneralmattertheyarguethatthestandardmustbemalleableandbroadenoughtoapplytoeverysituationinwhichexistingstatutesdonotaccomplishthepurposethattheyidentifyasconsumerprotection.Theproblemwiththisapproachofcourseisthatwhatconstitutesconsumerabuseorconsumerprotectionwouldstrictlybeintheeyeofthebeholder.Moreimportantlyifsuchanapproachwereadoptedtherewouldbenoobjectivelegalstandardagainstwhichconsumercreditorswouldbeabletoaccuratelymeasuretheiractsorpracticestodeterminetheircompliancewiththestandard.Shouldtheabusivestandardbeinterpretedandimplementedasbroadlyasconsumerdebtorscholarswouldlikeitcouldhaveimmediateaswellaslong-rangingeffectsoneveryproviderofconsumercreditrangingfromMainStreet-typeinstallmentcreditorstodepositoryinstitutionssuchasbanksandcreditunions.AbusiveConductShouldHaveaHighThreshold.Thestandardshouldnotbesobroadlydened.IfitisitwillgivetheCFPBunprecedentedanduncheckedpowerstotampdownoncreditactivitythatiscurrentlyconsideredlawfulunderstateandfederallaw.InWisconsinforexampletherearenointerestratemaximumlimits.TheWisconsinLegislaturedecidedin1984thatthemarketplaceandcompetitionshoulddeterminecreditprices.ToadoptamalleablestandardmightenabletheCFPBtooverturntheWisconsinLegislaturesdecisionbydeterminingthatnancechargesoverDODDFRANKACTATHREATTOMAINSTREAMCONSUMERCREDIT FINANCE15acertainannualpercentageratewouldbeconsideredabusive.SimilarlysuchastandardcouldallowtheCFPBtodecidethatcertaincreditorsshouldnotbeabletoofferadditionalproductsinconnectionwithitsloanproductofferingsjustbecauseitconsiderstheadditionalproductabusive.Withoutaclearunderstandingofwhattheabusivestandardmeanscreditorswouldunderstandablybehesitanttooffernewcreditproducts.Indeedimplementationofastandardbasedonsomeundenedconceptofwhatisabusivecouldhavedevastatingeffects.Dodd-FrankContemplatesaNarrowDefnitionofAbusiveActs.ThebetterpositionisthatthebroadandmalleabledenitionoutlinedaboveisnotwarrantedbythelanguageofDodd-Frank.SimplyputtheabusivestandardiscircumscribedbyDodd-FrankandshouldbenarrowlydenedbytheCFPBinitsenforcementpolicies.Theonlynewelementthatthestatutorydenitionofabusiveaddsaboveandbeyondwhatunfairanddeceptivebringtothetablerelatestoaconsumersunderstandingofthematerialriskscostsorconditionsofaproductorservice.Withoutcommittinganunfairordeceptiveactorpracticewhichisalreadyprohibitedacreditoractsabusivelywheniteither1materiallyinterfereswithaconsumersabilitytounderstandanancialproductor2recognizesthataprospectiveborrowerdoesnotunderstandthematerialriskscostsorconditionsoftheproductorservicee.g.aconsumerwithadiscernibleincapacitysuchasnotspeakingEnglishorbeingmentallychallengedandwiththatknowledgecommitsanactorpracticethattakesunreasonableadvantageoftheprospectiveborrowersknownlackofunderstanding.WiththesestatutorydenitionsinmindthereareseveralstandardsthattheCFPBshouldheedininterpretingandimplementingtheabovementionedabusiveadd-ontoitspower.Thesestandardsarenotnewconceptsbutareratherreiterationsoffundamentalandreasonableconceptsoflaw.TheimportanceofexpresslytyingthemtotheCFPBsenforcementpoliciesoftheabusivestandardhowevershouldnotbeconsideredunimportant.FollowingthesestandardswillensureaninterpretationandimplementationoftheabusivestandardthatisconsonantwiththedenitionsofabusiveassetforthinDodd-Frankand 16WHDFORETHOUGHTfurtherwillensurethattheCFPBdoesnotputanabusivestrainonconsumersaccesstocompetitivecredit.Compliancewithexistinglawsshouldestablishthatanactorpracticeisnotabusive.Followinglawsthatareconsidereddebatedandultimatelypassedbylawmakersestablishesthatacreditorisnotactingabusively.ForexampleacreditorscompliancewiththeTruthinLendingActmeansthatthecreditorsdisclosurescannotbeabusive.Acreditorsscientermatters.Thedenitionofabusiveincludesanindiciaofconsciousintent.Thereforeacreditorunintentionallycommittinganactorpracticecannotbeabusive.Whetheranactorpracticeisabusivemustbeevaluatedfromareasonablepersonsviewpoint.Ifareasonablepersonwereabletounderstandthenancialserviceproductorservicenoabusivenesshasoccurred.Inotherwordstheabusivestandardshouldnotbeevaluatedfromtheperspectiveoftheleastsophisticatedconsumer.Quantifableinjurymustbepresent.Hypotheticalordeminimusinjurytoconsumerscannotestablishabusiveness.Anactorpracticethatmightcauseanunwantedoutcomebutneverhasoughtnottobeautomaticallyconsideredabusivesothattheactorpracticeisprohibitedeventhoughinpracticeitisoftenabenettocustomers.Wehavebeenontheforefrontwithseveralconsumercreditrelatedtradeorganizationsfortheestablishmentofahigh-thresholdnarrowdenitionofwhatconstitutesabusiveconduct.WearehopefulthattheCFPBwilladoptthisdenitionsoasnottohinderfuturedevelopmentinourvibrantconsumercreditmarketplace.n HUMANRESOURCES17HUMANRESOURCES 18WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyFrankA.GuminaThefederalelectionsofNov.62012resultedinacontinuationofgridlockgovernmentwherebytheDemocratscontinuetocontrolthepresidencyandSenatewithoutasupermajoritytoendlibustersandtheRepublicanshavecontrolovertheHouseofRepresentatives.Whileinitialpost-electioncommentarywasatleastsomewhatconciliatoryfrombothpartiessignicantpolarizationstillexistsandcompromiseoncriticalissueswillbechallenging.Anynewsweepinglegislativechangesontheemploymentlawfrontappeardead-on-arrivalhowevertheexecutivebranchthroughfederalagencyrulemakingandadministrativedecisionswieldsapowerfulhand.Employerscanexpectaggressiveeffortsbythesefederalagenciestoaltertheexistingemploymentlawlandscape.AffordableCareActComplianceWithPresidentObamasre-electiontheAffordableCareActACAalsotermedbysomeasObamaCareappearsheretostay.Thelawwaspassedin2010andupheldbytheU.S.SupremeCourtinJune2012.EmployerswillneedtorampupeffortstocomplywiththeplayorpayandothermandatesoftheACA.In2013wearelikelytoseetheimplementationofcomplexregulationsinterpretingandprovidingadditionalrequirementsundertheACA.ThereisnodoubtthatcompliancewiththeACAwillbethesinglelargestchallengefacingemployersthiscomingyear.MoreAggressiveFederalEmploymentAgenciesFederalagenciessuchastheNationalLaborRelationsBoardNLRBDepartmentofLaborDOLandEqualEmploymentOpportunityCommissionEEOChaveconsiderablerule-makingandotherpowertochangeexistingrulesaffectingtheemployee-employerrelationship.DuringPresidentObamasrsttermwesawtheseagenciesbegintotakestridestoimplementpro-employeerulesbutsucheffortsoftenmetstrongresistanceinthecourtsfollowedbyanoticeablepull-backduringthemonthsprecedingtheNovember2012federalelections.In2013wewillmostcertainlyseearesurgenceoffederalagencyrule-makingandlitigationtacticsintheemploymentarena.NLRBNoagencyhasbeenormostlikelywillbemoreaggressiveinthecomingyearsthantheNLRB.ThepresidentcontrolsmajorityappointmentstotheNLRB.PresidentObamahasnotbeenshyaboutappointingunionfaithfulswithzealousagendas.In2012theNLRBsoughttoexpanditssphereofinuencebeyondtheunionizedworkplacetoallworkplaceswithnumerousdecisionsattackingat-willemploymentoff-dutyworkplaceaccessrulespoliciesprohibitingwalkingoffthejobcondentialityduringinternalinvestigationsandsocialmediapolicies.In2013wecanexpecttheNLRBtocontinueitscampaignofreachingouttonon-unionworkersmakingthemawareABUMPYROADAHEADFOREMPLOYERSEXPECTEDEMPLOYMENTLAWDEVELOPMENTSDURINGOBAMASSECONDTERM HUMANRESOURCES19oftheirrightsundertheNationalLaborRelationsAct.InadditiontheNLRBwillundoubtedlyattempttoresurrectambushelectionrulesgreatlydiminishingthetimeframeforunionelectionsandeffectivelyevisceratingemployersopportunitiestoexpressviewsonunionrepresentation.Theseexpectednewelectionrulesalongwiththemostrecentmicro-unitruleswherebysmallerbargainingunitsmaybedeemedappropriateforaportionoftheworkplacewillcertainlyempowerunionorganizing.DOLTheDOLwillalsoseektomorestridentlyprosecutethelawsitenforces.RecentlytheDOLenteredintoacooperativealliancewiththeInternalRevenueServicetomoreaggressivelygoaftercompaniesthatmisclassifyworkersasindependentcontractors.Acompanyutilizingindependentcontractorsmayfacenotonlyoneauditbutmultiplefederalandstateagencyauditsunderacross-reportingarrangementbetweenfederalagenciesandcertainstates.ItisalsoexpectedthattheDOLwillrekindleitseffortstoissuewageandhourrecordkeepingrulesforcingemployerstoprovidesalariedexemptemployeeswithinformationontheirpayandhowitiscalculated.IfanemployeeisdeemedexemptfromtheovertimepayrequirementsbyhisorheremployertheseproposedDOLruleswouldrequiretheemployerto1performaclassicationanalysis 20WHDFORETHOUGHT2disclosetheanalysistoemployeesand3retaintheanalysisforgovernmentinspection.Suchrequirementswouldcertainlyleadtoincreasedauditsandwageandhourlitigation.EEOCTheEEOCisintheprocessofnalizingitsStrategicEnforcementPlanSEP.UnderitsSEPtheEEOCwillfocusonsystemicdiscriminationespeciallyinrecruitmentandhiringzeroinginonbackgroundcheckspre-employmenttestingandthosehiringpracticeshavingadisparateimpactonprotectedgroups.TheSEPalsohastheEEOCfocusingonemerginglegalissuesundertheAmericansWithDisabilitiesActsuchasxedleaveofabsencepolicies100healedpoliciesbeforereturningemployeestoworkandforcedunpaidleaveforpregnantemployeesaswellasdiscriminationagainsthomosexualandtransgenderindividuals.RecommendationsWhilethechallengesfacingemployersunderthesecondObamaadministrationaremanytherearestepsemployersshouldtaketoensuretheyarenotblindsided1.CompaniesneedtoassignapointpersonusuallysomeonefromHumanResourcestoeducatethemselvesandbevigilantinmonitoringemergingemploymentlawtrendsandnimblychangingpoliciesandorpracticestomeetthechallenges.2.Managementandsupervisorytrainingonemergingtrendsaswellassolidblockingandtacklinghumanresourceskillswillbeevenmorecriticaltoavoidtroublinglegalissues.WewillundoubtedlyseeanexpansionofindividualemployeerightsintheworkplaceinthecomingyearsunderthesecondObamaadministration.Thoseemployersarmedwithtimelyinformationandtheabilitytoquicklyadaptwillhavethegreatestchanceofavoidingtroublesomelegalclaims.n HUMANRESOURCES21WrittenbyMaryeveHeathandMaryBethHughes2013ishereandunfortunatelytheeconomicoutlookisnotmuchbetterthan2012.Oneofthebiggestconsequencesforemployersintheworkerscompensationarenaisanincreaseinthevalueofworkerscompensationclaims.Thereareanumberofwaysthisoccursbutoneofthemostdangerousandpotentiallyoverlookedwaysisthroughpenaltyclaimspursueddirectlyagainstemployers.Therearefourdifferentpenaltyclaimsanemployeemaypursueagainsthisorheremployerallofwhichareuninsurableunderaworkerscompensationpolicy.Thismeanstheemployerbearsthefullburdenofdefendingtheclaimincludinghiringanattorneyandpayingitsowndefensecostsaswellaspayingforanyjudgmentorsettlement.Itisimportanttonotehoweverthattheemployeemayonlyprevailinanyoftheseclaimsafterprovingtheexistenceofacompensablework-relatedinjury.Followingaredescriptionsofthepotentialpenaltyclaimsthatmaybepursuedbyaninjuredemployee.1.BadFaithWisconsinStatutes102.181bpIftheemployerorinsurancecarriersuspendsterminatesfailstomakepaymentsorfailstoreportaninjuryasaresultofmaliceorbadfaiththepenaltyis200ofcompensationincludingmedicalexpensesuptoamaximumof30000foreachactofbadfaith.TheDepartmentofWorkforceDevelopmentDWDregulationDWD80.70defnesmaliceorbadfaithintwoways1wheretheemployerunreasonablyrefusesorunreasonablyfailstoreportanallegedinjurytoitsworkerscompensationcarrieror2wheretheself-insuredemployerorinsurancecarrierunreasonablyfailstomakepaymentorunreasonablysuspendsorterminatespaymentswithoutcredibleevidencedemonstratingthattheclaimforpaymentsisfairlydebatable.UnderWis.Stat.102.221thedelayedpaymentpenaltystatuteiftheemployerorinsurancecarrierinexcusablyfailstopayapenaltyof10ofthedelayedcompensationcanbeawarded.Thetwopenaltiesmaynotbeawardedconcurrently.2.UnreasonableRefusaltoRehireWisconsinStatute102.353Ifanemployeesustainsawork-relatedinjuryandtheemployerrefusestorehirethatemployeewithoutreasonablecausewheresuitableemploymentisavailablewithintheemployeesphysicalandmentallimitationstheemployermayhaveexclusiveliabilitytopaythewageslostduringtheperiodofrefusalwithamaximumexposureofoneyearswages.YettheWorkersCompensationActdoesnotrequiretheemployertocreateajob.Thestatutealsoappliestothesituationwhereanemployeeishiredbacktoworkbytheemployerbutissubsequentlyterminated.Whentheemployerdeterminesitsdutytobringanemployeebacktoworkafterawork-relatedinjuryitshouldnotoverlooktheemployersobligationsundertheFamilyandMedicalLeaveActAmericansWithDisabilitiesActandWisconsinFairEmploymentAct.3.ViolationofSafetyProvisionsWisconsinStatutes102.57IfaninjuryiscausedbythefailureoftheemployertocomplywithanystatutePUNITIVECONSEQUENCESUNINSUREDWORKERSCOMPENSATIONPENALTYCLAIMSAGAINSTEMPLOYERS 22WHDFORETHOUGHTruleororderoftheDWDcompensationanddeathbenetsshallbeincreasedby15nottoexceed15000.Yettheremustbeacausalrelationshipbetweentheviolationandtheinjuryincurred.ThisincludesinjuriescausedbyfailuretofollowOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministrationOSHAregulationsorwheretheemployerfailedtoprovideasafeplaceofemploymentasdeterminedunderWis.Stat.101.11SafePlaceStatute.TheDWDmaylikewisereducecompensationforthefailureofanemployeetofollowthesamesafetystatutesrulesororders.HoweveritismuchmorecommonfortheDWDtoassessapenaltyagainsttheemployerthanagainsttheemployee.4.MinorIllegallyEmployedWisconsinStatutes102.60Whenaninjuryissustainedbyaminorillegallyemployedcompensationshallbedoubleduptoamaximumof7500iftheemployeedoesnothaveawrittenworkpermittriplethecompensationuptoamaximumof15000ispaidiftheminorisworkingatprohibitedemployment.ThepenaltyisnotpaidtotheminorbutratherispaidintothestateSupplementalBenetFund.PracticalconsiderationsfordealingwithpotentialpenaltyclaimsTakeallreportsofworkinjuriesseriouslyandcompletetherequiredreportingforms.ConsultwithlegalcounselduringanyOSHAinvestigationorstateinvestigationintoasafetyviolationclaimorclaimthattheemployerillegallyemployedaminor.Withregardtounreasonablerefusaltorehireclaimsconsiderthattheemployermustprovethefailuretorehireorterminationwas1tfairandjustunderthecircumstances2theresultofaninabilitytoprovideworksuitedtotheemployeesphysicalandmentallimitationsor3theresultofaseniorityprovisioninacollectivebargainingagreement.WithregardtosafetyviolationclaimskeepinmindthattheDWDWorkersCompensationDivisionislikelytoadoptanyndingsofOSHAafterawork-relatedaccident.ThisisanotherreasonfortakingOSHAinspectionsseriously.TheWisconsinstatuteoflimitationsis12yearsandgenerallyrunsfromthedatethatcompensationwaslastpaidsoanemployeemayleanyoftheseclaimsforsometimeafteranemployermaythinkthecaseisclosed.Asettlementagreementandgeneralreleaseofemploymentclaimscannotextinguishtherightofanemployeetobringanyoftheabovepenaltyclaimsagainstanemployer.TheonlywaytorelievethepotentialliabilityforanyworkerscompensationclaimincludingthepenaltyclaimsistoenterintoaCompromiseAgreementthatisapprovedbytheDWDWorkersCompensationDivision.n HUMANRESOURCES23WrittenbyTiffanyL.HutchensTheObamaadministrationsdeferredactionforchildhoodarrivalsDACAprogramcouldgrantapathformorethan1millionunauthorizedimmigrantstolegallyjointheworkforce.HoweveremployerswhoknowthatanemployeeisapplyingforDACAreliefmaybeatriskofviolatingfederalimmigrationlaw.Theserisksmaybemitigatedbyformalizingtheemploymentvericationletterrequestprocess.ThiswilllimitanemployersknowledgethatanemployeeiscurrentlyunauthorizedandapplyingforDACArelief.WhatisDACADACAprovidestemporaryrelieffrompossibledeportationandallowssuccessfulapplicantstoobtainemploymentauthorization.DACAapplicantsbytheirverynaturearenotlegallyauthorizedtoworkintheUnitedStates.ImmigrantswhocametotheUnitedStatesaschildrenandmeetthefollowingrequirementsmaybeeligibleforDACArelief1.CametotheUnitedStatesbeforeturning16yearsofage2.DemonstrateatleastveyearsofcontinuouspresenceasofJune1520123.Areunder31yearsofage4.AreenrolledinschoolhaveeithergraduatedfromhighschoolpassedaGEDtestorservedhonorablyinthearmedforcesoftheUnitedStatesand5.Donothaveanyseriouscriminalhistory.Applicantsarerequiredtoprovetheseveelementswithsupportingdocumentation.EmploymentvericationlettersorpaystubsmayberequestedbyapplicantstodemonstratethesecondelementthattheyhavebeenintheUnitedStatesforvecontinuousyearspriortoJune152012.WhatareanEmployersRisksFederalimmigrationlawprohibitsemployersfromknowinglyhiringsomeonewhoisnotauthorizedtowork.Civilandcriminalliabilitymayattachtoanemployerwhoknowinglyemploysunauthorizedworkers.AnemployersknowledgemaybeactualorconstructiveandintheDACAcontextitwillattachwhenanemployeeasksanemployerabouthowtoapplyfortheDACAprogramorrequestsproofofemploymentforDACApurposes.Itisimportanttonotethatnoteveryrequestforanemploymentvericationletterimplicatesimmigrationlaw.TherearemanyreasonswhysomeonemayneedtoverifyemploymentwithanemployerandasimplerequestforconrmationofemploymentdateswithnomentionoftheDACAprogramshouldnotraisearedagforemployers.FurthermoreemployersshouldnotrushtojudgmentregardinganindividualsimmigrationstatusiftalkofDACAisheardaroundtheworkplace.HoweverifanindividualspecicallyrequestsemploymentvericationforDACApurposesanemployerisdeemedtohaveknowledgethattheindividualisnotworkauthorized.Whilemanyemployersmaybecompelledtohelpanemployeegaintemporaryrelieffromdeportationandlawfullyjointheworkforcetheknowledgegainedregardinganemployeesillegalstatusexposestheemployertopotentialliabilityfortheemploymentofunauthorizedworkers.EmployerswhoknowthatacurrentemployeeisapplyingforDACAreliefbecauseheorsheisnotauthorizedtoworkintheUnitedStateswillhavetoretheemployeeorfaceliabilityforviolatingimmigrationlaws.DEFERREDACTIONFORCHILDHOODARRIVALSWHATEMPLOYERSNEEDTOKNOW 24WHDFORETHOUGHTWhatifanEmployeePresentsaNewWorkAuthorizationDocumentAsDACAapplicationsareapprovedemployersmayndthatcurrentemployeeswhoemployersreasonablybelievedtobeworkauthorizedatthetimeofhirepresentnewworkauthorizationdocumentsafterDACAapproval.Employersshouldknowthattheymaycontinuetoemployaworkerwhopreviouslypresentedfalsedocumentsoradifferentidentitysolongastheoriginalyetfalsedocumentsreasonablyappearedatthetimeofhiretobevalidandrelatedtotheindividual.Foremployerswithhonestypoliciestheresultmaynotbethesame.AnemployeewhopresentsanewvalidworkauthorizationdocumentpursuanttoDACAmayhavepreviouslypresentedfalsedocumentsduringthehiringprocess.Employerswithanhonestypolicyneedtoconsideranyriskofretainingtheemployeeiftheemployertypicallyterminatesemployeeswhomateriallylieintheapplicationprocess.WillEmployersbeSubjecttoImmigrationEnforcementActionsIndividualDACAapplicationshavebeenassuredbytheU.S.CitizenshipandImmigrationServicesUSCISthatinformationusedintheirapplicationswillnotbeusedagainstthemhoweveremployershavenotbeenaffordedthesameguarantee.USCIShasstatedthatinformationfromemployerswillnotbesharedwithImmigrationandCustomsEnforcementforcivilimmigrationenforcementpurposesunlessthereisevidenceofegregiousviolationsofcriminalstatutesorwidespreadabuses.Itisnotyetclearwhatconstitutesanegregiousviolationorwidespreadabuseandonlytimewilltell.WhatShouldEmployersDoEmployersshouldsetupaformalautomaticprocessforemployeestorequestemploymentvericationletters.Forexampleemployeesmaybeinstructedtocompleteawrittenrequestformthatdoesnotinquireabouttheintendeduseoftheletter.Employersthatimplementsuchapracticewillavoidboththeemployeeprovidingareasonfortherequestandaverbalinteractionwherethereasonfortherequestmightcomeupduringaconversation.KeyTakeawaysDACAreliefmaybenetemployersbyexpandingtheworkforcebuttheprogramposesriskstoemployers.Employersmaynotknowinglyemployunauthorizedworkers.AnemployermaygainknowledgethatanemployeeisunauthorizedtoworkiftheemployeerequestsassistancefromanemployerduringtheDACAapplicationprocess.EmployersshouldcreateformalemploymentvericationletterrequestprotocolstoavoidgainingknowledgethatanemployeeisapplyingforDACArelief.n INTELLECTUALPROPERTY25INTELLECTUALPROPERTY 26WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyTedJ.BarthelandThomasJ.PienkosIn44B.C.theIdesofMarchwitnessedtheendofJuliusCaesar.Thisyear2013A.D.theIdesofMarchwillbringanendtotherst-to-inventprincipleofU.S.patentlawaparadigmthathasbeenahallmarktoU.S.inventionsformorethan200years.CurrentlytheU.S.patentsystemisbasedonauniquerst-to-inventdoctrinewhichmeansthattheinventorwhorstconceivedoftheinventionisconsideredtherstinventorandisentitledtopatentprotection.Countriesintherestoftheworldhoweverhavepatentsystemsbasedonarst-to-ledoctrinewherethepatentisgrantedtotheinventorwhoisthersttoleapatentapplicationregardlessofthedateofinvention.AfterMarch152013theAmericaInventsActAIAwilltransformtheU.S.patentsystemfromtherst-toinventsystemtoarst-inventor-toleFITFsystem.ApolicybehindtheAIAistoharmonizeU.S.patentlawwiththerestoftherst-to-lepatentworld.NotethattheAIAdoesnottransformtheUnitedStatestoatruerst-to-lepatentsysteminwhichthepersonrsttothepatentofceprevails.UndertheFITFsystemaone-yeargraceperiodisprovidedforlingapatentapplicationafterapublicdisclosurebytheinventor.AIAWillGreatlyExpandPriorArtAfterMarch152013theAIAwillalsogreatlyexpandtheuniverseofpriorarti.e.publicationsandotherinformationwhichcanbeusedtopreventgrantofapatentapplication.TheAIAchangesthelanguageof35U.S.C.102toencompassamuchbroaderrangeofmaterialthatcanbeusedbytheU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfceUSPTOtobarapatentfrombeingissued.ToprepareforthedramaticchangescomingwiththeIdesofMarchsavvyinnovatorsmaywishtoconsiderthefollowingmeasures.1.FilepatentapplicationsonanyinventionsbyMarch152013ifnotsooner.ApplicationsledbyMarch152013willbegrandfatheredunderTAKEHEEDOINVENTORBEWARETHEIDESOFMARCH INTELLECTUALPROPERTY27thecurrentrst-to-inventsystemandthenarrowerdenitionofpriorart.AnotheradvantageFilingbyMarch152013canextendtherst-to-inventsystemforyearsintothefuture.AchainofoneormorecontinuationdivisionalpatentapplicationsclaimingprioritytoanapplicationwithaneffectivelingdateonorbeforeMarch152013willalsobegrandfatheredunderthecurrentrst-to-inventsystem.2.Prepareforthenewregime.AfterMarch152013theracetotheUSPTObegins.UnderthenewFITFsystemaninventorwhowaitstoleanapplicationmayrisklosinghisorherpatentrightstoaninventorwhoinventedlaterbutledrst.TheAIAwillplaceaddedincentivetoleapatentapplicationinordertomerelypreventothersfrompatentingonesowninvention.3.Maintaingoodrecords.TheAIAbringsnewimpetusfordocumentingresearchanddevelopmentactivities.Accuratelabnotebooksmaybereliedupontoshowrstinventionbytheinventorthatoccurredwithintheone-yeargraceperiod.Maintaininggoodrecordscanbeusedtoovercomethird-partypriorarttoalater-ledapplication.StrongresearchrecordsmayproveessentialintheAIAsnewderivationproceedingaprocedurewherebyatrueinventorcanchallengeandpreventonewhotookstoleorderivedhisorherinvention.Finallyawell-implementedrecordkeepingprotocolmaydeterdepartingemployeesconsultantsorjointventurepartnersfromattemptingtoobtainpatentsonthecompanysowninnovations.4.Harvestvaluablepatentrights.Goodrecordkeepingcanalsobeavaluablefoundationformethodicalevaluationofinnovations.RegularlyassessingkeyinnovationswillspeedupthepatentlingprocesswhichisvitalunderthenewAIApatentregime.Acommitteeofdecision-makerschargedwithharvestingvaluablepatentrightsandassistedbypatentcounseladvisingonpatentabilityandthird-partyriskcanefcientlyidentifypatentassetsworthprotectingbeforevaluablerightsarelost.TheAIAanditsnewparadigmwillhaveprofoundimplicationsforpatentstakeholders.TakingproactivestepsnowandafterMarch152013willhelptoensurethatpatentrightsaremaximized.InnovatorsDonotfearbuttakeheedandbewaretheIdesofMarchn 28WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyElisabethTownsendBridgeWhydointellectualpropertyIPlawyersencouragetheirclientstoclutteruptheirmarketingmaterialsproductpackagingandwebsiteswithpatenttrademarkandcopyrightnoticesDonttheyknowthatsuchnoticesdetractfromtheimportantproductmessagesconveyedtocustomersProperlyusingandmonitoringIPnoticesonadvertisingandpackagingmaterialscanbetroublesomeforIPownersanddistractfrommarketingmessages.HoweversuchnoticesarecrucialtoprotectingIPassetsandpropernoticecanhavesubstantialdeterrencevalue.AnIPownerdoesnotwanttodiscovertoolatethatitsfailuretoputproperIPnoticesonproductorpackaginghasseverelylimitedorblockeditsrighttorecoverdamagesforinfringement.Patenttrademarkandcopyrightnoticesarecriticaltotheenforcementofownershiprightsandtherecoveryofdamagesforinfringementofthoserights.PatentsPatentsincludeplantpatentsdesignpatentsandutilitypatents.Thenoticepatentpendingmaybeusedonaproductembodyingtheinventionafterapatentapplicationhasbeenled.Oncethepatentisissuedthepatentownermayamendthenoticetorecitethepatentnumberinthefollowingmannerpatentorpat.andthepatentnumber.Asanalternativethepatentownercanrecitepatentorpat.anddisplayanInternetaddresswheretheproductisassociatedwiththerelevantpatentnumbers.ThisapproachcanmakeiteasierfortheIPownertoupdatenoticesefcientlysinceupdatesareconsolidatedinonelocationandpackagingandproductmaterialsdonothavetobemodiedindividually.IfthepatentownerfailstomarkitsproductwithpropernoticeaccordingtoUnitedStatesCode287nodamagesshallberecoveredbythepatenteeinanyactionforinfringementexceptdamagesforinfringementafterreceiptofactualnotice.Sincesubstantialmonetarydamagesmayaccrueasaresultofinfringementpriortoaceaseanddesistdemandletterorotheractualnoticeitisimportanttoconsistentlyusepropernoticeonproductsinassociationwithrelevantpatentnumbers.TrademarksThetrademarksymbolsandaremethodsusedbytrademarkownerstocommunicatetheirclaimofrightstothegeneralpublic.ThereisnoabsoluterequirementthatatrademarkownerprovidenoticeofitsclaimofrightsinmarksonproductpackagingoradvertisingmaterialsunderU.S.law.Howevertheuseoftrademarksymbolsisadvisablebecausetheyprovidenoticeoftheclaimofrightsinthemarkandtheyhavesubstantialdeterrencevalue.Althoughthesymbolhasnostatutorysignicanceitisgenerallyrecognizedtosignifyaclaimofcommonlawrightsinthemark.Thesymbolincontrastshouldalwaysbeusedwithmarksassociatedwithaviabletrademarkregistrationandisrecognizedastheuniformregistrationsymbolthroughouttheworld.Howevertoensureproperusethetrademarkownershouldbemindfulofthejurisdictionswherethemarkisregisteredandthegoodsserviceswithwhichitisassociatedintheregistration.RegistrationunderU.S.lawprovidesconstructivenoticetothepublicoftheWHYAREINTELLECTUALPROPERTYNOTICESSOIMPORTANT INTELLECTUALPROPERTY29registrantsclaimofrightsinthemark.ThesymbolhasstatutorysignicanceundertheLanhamAct.InparticularSection29oftheactprovidesthattheownerofamarkregisteredintheU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfcemaygivenoticethatthemarkisregisteredbydisplayingthewordsRegisteredinU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfceorReg.U.S.Pat.Tm.Off.or.Theactprovidesthatinanysuitforinfringementwherearegistrantfailstogivenoticenoprotsanddamagesshallberecoveredunlessthedefendanthadactualnoticeoftheregistration.Furthermoretrebledamagesandattorneysfeesmayberecoveredintheeventofwillfulinfringementofaregisteredmark.Willfulnessmaybedifculttoestablishiftheregistranthasnotdisplayedpropernoticewiththemark.CopyrightsCopyrightnoticeisalsoimportanttotheenforcementofrightsandtherecoveryofdamages.Copyrightarisesunderthelawwhentheauthoroftheworkwhetherliteraryartisticormusicalxestheworkinatangiblemediumofexpression.Noticeofcopyrightshouldbeplacedonanyandallpublishedcopiesoftheworkwhetherornotregistered.Thenoticeconsistsofthefollowing1.Thesymbolthewordcopyrightspelledoutortheabbreviationcopr.orinthecaseofsoundrecordings2.Theyearofrstpublicationoftheworkand3.Thenameoftheownerofcopyrightinthework.Thenoticeshouldbeafxedtoanyandallcopiesinsuchamannerandlocationsoastoprovidereasonablenoticeofthecopyrightclaim.Signicantlywherenoticeisprovidedaninfringercannotclaimtobeinnocentandmitigatedamages.RecommendationsAllIPownersshouldtakethefollowingstepstoensureproperIPnotice1.ConductregularreviewsandauditsofIPnoticesonproductpackagingandpromotionalmaterialstoensurenoticesareproperlyusedandreectcurrentstatusoftheIPassets.Failuretousepatentnoticesproperlymayconstitutefalsemarking.2.Docketexpirationdatesofpatentsasaremindertoremovenoticesaspatentsexpire.3.Considertheapplicableproductsthatshouldbearnoticesofnewlyissuedpatentsandreplacepatentpendingwiththenewpatentnumbers.4.ReviewwebsiteuseandbesuretodisplayIPnoticesinparticularwithtrademarksatleastonceinaprominentlocatione.g.theheaderifappropriateoneachpagethatcanbeaccesseddirectlyontheInternet.5.Usepatentpendingandtodeterinfringement.6.Usecopyrightnoticeonallmarketingmaterialswhetherornotregistered.n 30WHDFORETHOUGHTLITIGATION LITIGATION31WrittenbyErinM.KeeseckerWrittencontractsgivebusinessesandindividualsasenseofsecurityandstabilityinpartbecausetheyseemdifculttobreakormodify.Mostwrittencontractscontainasectionthatdictateswhatthepartiesmustdoinordertochangetheagreed-uponcontractualterms.Thissectionoftencontainsano-oral-modicationNOMclauseindicatingthatamendmentsmustbemadeinwritingandexecutedbybothparties.HereisanexampleofsuchaclauseNoamendmentsormodifcationsofthisagreementshallbemadeorbedeemedtohavebeenmadeunlesssuchamendmentsormodifcationsaremadeinwritingandexecutedbythepartytobeboundthereby.InreadingtheNOMclausequotedabovemostpeopleenvisionthepartiesreturningtotheproverbialbargainingtablenegotiatingtheamendmentandthensigninganamendedwrittendocumentperhapsunderverysimilarconditionsasexistedwhentheoriginalcontractwasformed.Forpurposesofformalitytheremayevenbeanotarypresent.ThathoweverisnolongertheonlyscenariopermittedbyanNOMclause.BecausethetermwritingdoesnotnecessarilymeanputtingpentopaperNOMclausesmaynolongerbeenoughtobarcontractamendmentsbyinformalemailexchangesoreveninstantmessagingIMconversations.TheEnforceableEmailChainForinstancein2009theU.S.DistrictCourtfortheCentralDistrictofCaliforniaheldthataseriesofinformalemailsbetweentwopartiestoawrittencontractcreatedanenforceableamendmenteventhoughgoverninglawmuchlikeanNOMclauserequiredagreementstobereducedtowritingorsomememorandumornotesthereofandsignedbythepartytobechargedtherewithorsomeotherpersonthereuntobythepartylawfullyauthorizedinwriting.Thecourtultimatelyemployedasubstanceoverformtypeofanalysisconcludingthataslongasacourtcanplainlydeterminetheessentialelementsofthecontracti.e.theidentityofthepartiestothecontractthenatureofitssubjectmatteranditsessentialtermsanemailchainisanadequatevehicleforamendment.The1.2MillionInstantMessageAnevenmoredramaticexampleoccurredin2011intheU.S.DistrictCourtfortheSouthernDistrictofFlorida.TherethepartiesNOMclausestatedthatthecontractcouldbechangedonlybyasubsequentwritingsignedbybothparties.AdisputearoseafterthepartiesdiscussedmodifyingcertaintermsofthecontractinaseriesofinformalconversationsviaIM.TheplaintiffarguedthattheIMconversationeffectuatedacontractamendmentanddemandedpaymentunderthenewtermsthedefendantdisagreedandrefusedtopay.Morethan1.2millionindamageswereinplay.ThecourtconcludedthattheIMconversationeffectivelyamendedthecontract.AmongotherthingsthecourtwasinuencedbythefactthattheIMmessagesnotonlyshowedthatthepartieshadcometoanagreementbutalsocontainedthespecictermsofthatagreement.FurtherthecourtwasinuencedbythefactthattheIMmessagesactuallyrecordedthepartieseffortstocarryouttheagreed-uponamendmentsItisdifculttoimaginemorespecicanddirectevidenceofanagreementthanthetwopartiesactuallysittingdownsimultaneouslyanddoingwhattheyhadagreedtodo.WRITTENCONTRACTSARENOTALWAYSSETINSTONE 32WHDFORETHOUGHTButhowdidthecourtndthattheIMconversationwassignedbybothpartiesItdidnt.InsteadthecourtsidesteppedtheNOMclausebyconcludingthatthedefendantwaiveditsprotectionsunderthatclausewhentheplaintiffmateriallychangeditspositioninrelianceonthenewterms.InotherwordsthecourtbarredthedefendantfromusingtheNOMclauseasadefense.ImplicationsforWisconsinAlthoughWisconsinstatecourtshavenotspecicallyaddressedtheissueofcontractmodicationbyemailorIMcorrespondencetheyhaveexaminedemailcorrespondenceinthecontextofcontractdisputestodeterminethepartiesintent.FurthertheU.S.DistrictCourtfortheEasternDistrictofWisconsinhasstatedthattheissueofwhetherornotdefendantsemailsconstituteawritingsignedbydefendantisaquestionforthejurytodecide.ThesecasessuggestthatWisconsincourtsmayenforceacontractamendmentevidencedonlybyemailorIMaslongasthepartiesintentisclearlydiscernible.ConclusionThepossibilityofcreatingenforceablecontractmodicationsbyinformalcommunicationssuchasemailorIMisparticularlyrelevanttobusinessesorindividualswhooperateunderthetermsofcontractsthatwerenegotiatedsometimeago.AsignicantamountofemailandIMcorrespondencecanoccurbetweenpartiesduringthecourseofarelationship.Inlightofthedecisionsdiscussedabovetheseinformalcommunicationscouldamounttoanenforceablecontractualamendmentorevenwaiverofkeycontractualprovisions.FollowingareafewissuestoconsiderifyouarecurrentlyoperatingunderthetermsofaformalwrittencontractDontunderestimatethepowerofanemailorIMexchangetomodifythetermsofacontractualrelationshipevencontractsthatseemtobesetinstone.IfpossibleavoiddiscussingcontracttermsviaemailorIM.Thinkabouthoweasyorhowdifcultyouwantittobetomodifyyourcontract.DoesyourcontractsmodicationclausereectthatlevelofeaseordifcultyIntheeyesofmanyjudgesactionsspeaklouderthanwords.Areyourday-to-dayactionsconsistentwiththetermsofyourwrittencontractIfforexampleyouhaveagreedtochangecertaincontracttermsviaemaileventhoughyourcontractcontainsanNOMclauseyoumayhaveinadvertentlywaivedthatcontractualprotection.Takethetimetoreviewyourwrittencontractsanddeterminewhethertheystillreectyourcontractualrelationshipsorwhethertheyneedtobeupdated.n LITIGATION33WrittenbyThomasJ.SpringerandGabrielleB.AdamsJobcreationwasattheheartoflastyearsnationalelectioncampaign.ItcomesasnosurprisethatWisconsinspoliticalleadersareseekingtoencouragejobcreationinthestate.Leadersfrombothpartieshaveseizeduponentrepreneurshipasthedriveroffuturejobcreation.Manyseestatesubsidizingofventurecapitalfundingasthebestwaytopromoteentrepreneurship.InparticulargettingmoreventurecapitaltoWisconsinsstartupenterprisesearly-stagehigh-growthhigh-riskcompaniesthatspecializeininformationtechnologybiotechnologyorsoftwareisseenasapolicygoal.In2011thegovernorstateSenateandAssemblyallproposedversionsofaventurecapitalpromotingbill.Unfortunatelyaconsensuswasnotreachedandnobillwaspassed.Itisexpectedthatpassageofaventurecapitalbillwilloccurinthenextlegislativesession.WhyShouldWeCareThecalculusforstategovernmentpromotionofventurecapitalissimpleMoreventurecapitalwouldfundmorestartupsandmorestartupswillresultinmorejobs.AccordingtotheKauffmanFoundationallofthenetjobgrowthintheUnitedStatesinthepastdecadehascomefromstartupbusinesses.Historicallysuccessfulcompaniesintheirrstveyearsarejobcreatorsaveraging3millionnewjobseachyear.Incontrastcompaniesmorethan5yearsoldtendtoshedjobsonaverageof1millionannually.Wisconsinispoisedformoreventurecapitalinvestment.Thestatehaslonghadastrongfoundationinresearchintellectualpropertyandpatents.Accordingtothe2012editionoftheWisconsinPortfolioanannualpublicationoftheWisconsinTechnologyCouncilthroughitsWisconsinAngelNetworkWisconsinhas2.15ofthenationsacademicresearchspendingand2.11ofthenationspatentlings.Howeverthisintellectualcapitalhasnottranslatedintostartupcreation.Thelackofcrossoverofresearchandintellectualcapitalintostartupenterprisesisattributedtoalackofventurecapital.AgainaccordingtotheKauffmanFoundationWisconsincompaniesfetchlessthan1ofventurecapitalinvestednationwide.Thatputsitinthebottom10ofthe50statesinentrepreneurialactivity.Equalizingtheamountofinvestmentwiththeintellectualcapitalstatusofthestatewouldcreateenormouspotentialforjobgrowth.WisconsinsNumbers223602WisconsinsunemployedSeptember2012.3PercentageoftheWisconsinworkforceinventure-backedbusinesses.Thenationalaverageis11.1.2billionAmountofventurecapitalWisconsinhasattractedinthepast40years.72millionAmountofventurecapitalraisedbyWisconsinin2011rankinglastoutoftheninestatesitssize.0.25PercentageofthenationsventurecapitalraisedbyWisconsinin2011.1.84PercentageofthenationspopulationWisconsinrepresents.0.13PercentageofallventurecapitalundermanagementinWisconsin.IncontrasttothesenumbersWisconsinspeerstateMinnesotahasperformedwellintheventurecapitaleconomy.In2009Minnesotaattractedmorethan6.5billioninventurecapitalinvestment19oftheMinnesotaworkforcewasattributedtoventurecapitalanditsunemploymentrateisat5.8.STATEVENTURECAPITALBILLINTHEWORKS 34WHDFORETHOUGHTAccordingtoZachBrandonDirectoroftheWisconsinTechnologyCouncilsWisconsinAngelNetworkifWisconsinisabletoincreaseitsventurecapitalinvestingtobeonparwithjustthenationalaverage11itcouldpotentiallyreduceitsunemploymentratetoalmostzero.AttheveryleastitcouldbecomemorecompetitivelikeMinnesota.WisconsinsRecentAttemptstoPassVentureCapitalLegislationGov.ScottWalkerproposedaventurecapitalbillin2011whichwouldhaveprovided200millionintaxcreditstoinsurancecompaniesandout-of-stateinvestmentrmsknownascertiedcapitalcompaniesorCAPCOs.Inreturnthesecompanieswouldberequiredtoinvest250millioninWisconsinstartupcompaniesthroughtheCAPCOs.Thestatewouldgain20ofanyprotsbuttherewasnoguaranteeitwouldgetbackanyoftherevenuelostingrantingthetaxcredits.Thegovernorsproposalwaslargelybasedonthesameinvestmentmodelpresentedinaprograminitiatedin1999.The1999programprovided50millionworthofWisconsintaxcreditstothreeCAPCOswhosoldthecreditstoinsurancecompanieswiththepromisethattheywouldinvestthemoneyinWisconsincompanies.Howeverthe1999programhadlargeaws.TheproposalhadnoestablishedauthoritytoenforcehowthemoneywouldbespentormanagedbytheCAPCOstheCAPCOswerenotrequiredtorepaythestateforthetaxcreditsandtheCAPCOswereonlyrequiredtoinvesthalfofthemoneyintherstveyearsoftheprogram.AsaresultonlyhalfofthemoneypromisedtobechanneledintoWisconsinsstartupsevermadeittherethemajorityofthecompaniesthatreceivedmoneyfromtheCAPCOshaventsurvivedandonlyafewhundredjobswerecreatedinthestateforadecadesworthofeffort.Notsurprisinglythe2011CAPCO-orientedproposalranintoheavyopposition.AfterwardstheLegislatureadvancedtwoproposals.BothbillshadthesamegoalofpromotingWisconsinstartupgrowththroughjump-startingventurecapitalinvestment.Bothbillsadvocatedfor200-400millioninventurecapitalinvestmentfunds.Moneyforthefundswouldberaisedbyeithersellingbondsorallocatingtaxcreditstoencourageinvestment.Thefundswouldhaverequiredprivatepartiestoprovidematchingmoneytoqualifyforthegovernmentfunds.AssemblyBill129andSenateBill94wouldhaveestablishedtheWisconsinVentureCapitalAuthorityaswellasaninvestmentfundandinvestmentprogramstobeadministeredbytheauthoritytoinvestinventurecapitalfundsandWisconsinstartupandotherbusinesses.HowevertheSenateandAssemblydifferedsignicantlyonhowthefundswouldbefundedandtheyfailedenactment.LikethegovernorsproposalAssemblyBill129intendedtogatherthemoneythroughinsurancepremiumtaxcreditstoCAPCOs.Forexampleinexchangeforinvesting2millioninWisconsinstartupslocalandout-of-stateinsurancecompanieswouldreceive2millionintaxcutsinWisconsin.Insurancecompaniesareidealforthistypeofventurebecausetheytraditionallyhavelargetaxbillsandknowhowtoinvestlargeamountsofmoney.Thisproposaldidnotrequirethestatetospendcurrentfundsbecauseitwasgivingtaxcreditsawaytoinvestors.Butthestatecouldntguaranteethatthemoneywouldbereturnedtoit.HistoricallyCAPCOshavekept80ofthemoneyrelatedtotheirinvestmentsandreturnedonly20tothetaxpayers.SenateBill94favoredsellingbondswhichwouldessentiallyprovidestategrantsandloanstoselectedangelandventurecapitalrms.Thestatewouldpayoffthebondswhenreturnscameinfromthefunds.ThisproposalcouldalmostensurethatthemoneyinvestedwouldstayinWisconsin.Howeverwhenthestateisrunningabudgetdecitborrowingmoneytoencourageriskyinvestmentsisdisfavored.IntheendtheAssemblydidnotwanttoappeartobeseenasborrowingmoneytofundthesefundstheSenatedidnotwanttobeseenasloaningmoneyandneithercouldagreeonthebestwaytoencourageventurecapitalinvestmentinWisconsin. LITIGATION35WhatWeLearnedWiththefederalelectionsofNov.62012overwecanexpectnewpassingofaventurecapitalbill.TheGOPnowholdsbothstatehousesandanyproposalitadoptsshouldpasswithoutresistance.Whatwillbeinterestingtowatchisnotwhetherabillpassesbutwhatchangesifanyaremadeintheproposal.ThecriticalissuestheLegislaturemustaddressinanyventurecapitalbillwillbeHowshouldout-of-statefundsbetreatedvis--visdomesticWisconsinfundsWhowillqualifyfortaxcreditsmatchingfundsoroutrightgrantsHowmuchrevenuewillthestatespendorgiveupintheformoftaxcreditsHowdoesthestatetrackfundsaftertheyareallocatedWillthestateguidewhatkindofcompaniesthefundswillbeallowedtoinvestinInsidersindicatethatthegovernorwillproposeamoremodestproposalintermsofcapitaltobeinfusedbythestatelikely150-200millionwithafocusonearly-tomid-stagestartupsindiverseindustries.FurthertheywillbelookingtofundtheproposalwithoutusingCAPCOsorissuingbondsperhapswithmatching-fundgrants.KegonsaCapitalPartnersKCPaWisconsinventurecapitalmanagementrmsuggeststhataventurecapitalschemethatpromotesstartupcreationbyspreadingventurecapitalacrossawiderangeofindustriestechnologiesandlocationsinthestatewouldbethemostprotable.BydiversifyingitsventurecapitalinvestmentsKCParguesWisconsinwillexperiencehighinvestorreturnsbecauseitrequireslessinvestmentoverallandhasthepotentialtocreatemorecompaniesandthusmorejobs.Anotherstrategyadvocatesinvestinginanarrowgroupofselectcompaniesinspecictechnologies.Ratherthanmakingseveralsmallerinvestmentsinavarietyofcompaniesthisstrategyfocusesoninvestorsmakingmultipleandincreasinginvestmentsinselectcompanies.Itinvolvesmoreinvestmentoverallbutcreatesfewercompaniesintheprocess.AllofWisconsinsgreatemployersfromHarley-DavidsonandJohnsonControlstoRedPrairieandEpicSystemsstartedasnewdomesticenterprises.Thestatehastraditionallygrownitsowneconomy.Wisconsinhastheentrepreneurialtalentandsmartleadershiptoboostgrowth.Itjustneedstherighttypeofcapitalsupporttodoso.n 36WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyKarenL.TidwallandPamelaM.SchmidtInternet-relatedbusinesstransactionsformamajorpartofthecountryseconomy.Standardcontractprovisionsthatlimitremediesexcludeliabilityforcertaindamagesreleaseandwaivefutureclaimschoosewherelitigationorarbitrationwilltakeplaceiftherelationshipdoesntworkoutandchoosewhichstateslawwillapplytothedisputearehelpfultoolsthatassistbusinessestoevaluateplanforandcontractuallylimittheirriskandefcientlyaddressdisputesthatmayarise.Ifabusinesssellsproductsorservicesonlineitneedstobeawareofwhatisrequiredtoformanelectronicagreementbindingitscustomertothecompanysstandardtermsthatitwantstogovernthebusinessrelationship.Thecompanymustrstaskwhetheritswebsiteisstructuredinawaytoensurethatacustomerhasagreedtobeboundbythecompanysstandardtermsofsaleorservice.Iftheanswertothatquestionisyesthenextquestioniswhethereachstandardtermintheelectroniccontractisseparatelyandindependentlyenforceableunderapplicablestatelaw.Click-WrapAgreementsareGenerallyEnforceableandEasytoAdoptWhiletheexplosionofe-commercehasgivenrisetosomenovelissuesforcourtstoconsiderithasnotfundamentallychangedtheprinciplesofcontractlaw.Theessentialelementsofacontractarestillanofferanacceptanceandconsideration.Inmostjurisdictionsanofferandacceptanceexistwhenmutualexpressionsofassentarepresent.ThesebasicpapercontractingprinciplesapplytocontractsformedovertheInternetwithanadded21stcenturytwist.Toestablishmutualassenttothebusinessstandardtermsthecompanymustafrmativelyandreasonablycommunicatethetermstoitscustomers.Theeasiestandmosteffectivewaytodothisine-commerceisbyadoptingaclick-wrapagreementforthecompanywebsite.Aclick-wrapagreementmeansthatthewebsiteisstructuredtoplacethestandardtermsofsaleorservicedirectlyupfrontinaconspicuousplaceandtorequirethecustomertoexplicitlymanifestitsassenttothosetermsbyclickingonaboxthatacknowledgesIAgreeorIAcceptthestandardterms.ResearchshowsthatInternetusersdonotusuallybothertoreadclick-ISITASEASYASCLICKINGIACCEPTENFORCINGSTANDARDTERMSINELECTRONICSALESCONTRACTSUSINGCLICK-WRAPAGREEMENTS LITIGATION37wrapagreementcontractterms.Butacustomercannotgetoutofanelectroniccontractsimplybyarguingheorshedidnotreadthetermsorrecallmakingthecontract.Click-wrapagreementsaregenerallyenforceablebecausethenecessarycontractelementsofofferandacceptancearesatisedbythecustomersrequiredclick.BestPracticesforClick-WrapAgreementsCourtsaremorelikelytoenforceaclick-wrapagreementifthecompanybuildsoneormoreofthefollowingtoolsintoitswebsiteTheIAgreeorIAcceptclickboxisplacedattheendofthetermssothecustomermustvieworscrollthroughallofthetermsoftheagreementbeforebeingabletoassenttothem.Materialtermsandconditionsareconspicuouslydisplayedusingboldprintordifferentcolorfont.Thecustomercannotactuallybuytheproductorservicewithoutrstassentingtothetermsoftheagreement.Clearwordsofacceptanceorrejectionofthestandardtermsareusede.g.IAcceptorIDoNotAccept.Thebusinessshouldbecarefultocreateandretainadetailedwrittenrecordofthedevelopmentoftheclick-wrappartofthewebsitehowthewebsiteworksthereasonsforconstructingcertainpagesandlinkstoensuretheopportunityforuserstoviewtherelevanttermsoftheagreementandthecustomersnavigationtraintoshowthatthecustomerviewedandclickedontheIAgreeorIAcceptbox.Browse-WraporHybridE-ContractsMaybeUnenforceableAbusinessstandardtermsofsaleorserviceshouldnotbehiddenmaskedorburiedinlayersofwebpagesrequiringthecustomertohuntforthemorthecompanyrisksacourtndingtheelectroniccontractunenforceable.Basedonthemostcurrentcourtdecisionstheadoptionofbrowse-wrapagreementsarediscouraged.Browse-wrapagreementseitherpoststandardcontracttermsonthecompanyswebsitesubmergetheminaplaceaccessibleonlybyahyperlinkorareaccessibleonthescreenbutdontrequireacustomertoexpresslymanifestassent.Ifpossiblethecompanyalsoshouldavoidusinghybridclick-wrapbrowse-wrapagreementswhichgivenoticeofthestandardcontracttermsbyreferencetoahyperlinktoanotherpageandrequireexpressmanifestassentofacceptancebutmayormaynotbeenforceable.Browse-wrapandhybridagreementscreateanunnecessaryriskoflosingthebusinesscontractualprotectionsintheeventofadisputeparticularlywhenitissimpletoadoptaclick-wrapagreementstructuredforthebusinessonlinecommercecontractingneeds.TheEnforceabilityofSpecicStandardContractTermsinaClick-WrapAgreementIntheeventofadisputeissuesmayariseastowhetheraspeciccontracttermcontainedinaclick-wrapagreementisenforceableunderstatelaw.Evenifavalide-contracthasbeenformedthecompanyshouldconsultwithitsattorneytolookateachstandardtermindependentlyunderstatelawthroughthelensofemerginge-commercelegalprinciplesconsideringissuesofnoticedisclosurelanguageconspicuousnessandconcernsofpublicpolicy.n 38WHDFORETHOUGHTREALESTATEENVIRONMENTAL REALESTATEENVIRONMENTAL39WrittenbyPhillipR.BowerWaterappearstobeanabundantresourceinWisconsin.TwoofthelargestbodiesoffreshwaterintheworldLakeSuperiorandLakeMichiganborderWisconsintothenorthandeastwhilethemightyMississippiRiverowsalongitswest.Wisconsinsinteriorisdottedandshapedbynumerousinlandlakesandriversandgroundwaterwellshaveprovidedreliablesourcesofwaterforcommunitiesagricultureandindustryformanyyears.TodayhowevertherearenumerouscompetingusesforWisconsinswaterresourcesincludingdrinkingagriculturemanufacturingelectricgenerationtransportationrecreationandtourism.Therearealsomanypotentialthreatstowatersupplyandqualitysuchasincreaseddemanddroughtoodinginvasivespeciespollutionurbanandagriculturalrunoffandclimatechange.Whiletheseusesandthreatsmayresultinbusinesschallengestheyalsocanprovideopportunitiesforbusinessesthatplanforwaterimpactsandworktosafeguardthisimportantresource.BusinessChallengesTheGlobalWaterReport2012authoredbyDeloittefortheCarbonDisclosureProjectsurveyed318Global500companies.Morethanhalfoftherespondingcompaniessaidtheyexperiencednegativeimpactsduringthepastveyearsfromwater-relatedissuesincludingwaterscarcitybusinessinterruptionandpropertydamagefromoodingrisingcoststocomplywithdischargestandardsandregulatoryuncertaintyandpoorwaterquality.Comparedto2011moreoftherespondingcompaniesviewwaterasasubstantialrisktotheirbusinessandareawareofsupplychainrisks.ThesesamechallengesarepresentinWisconsin.DuringthepastveyearsWisconsinhasexperiencedsignicantoodingthatcausedsignicantpropertydamageclosedmajorroadsanddrainedLakeDeltondryafteracountyhighwaywaswashedout.DuringthatsameperiodWisconsinsufferedfromseveredroughtthatstrainedwaterresourcesandCATCHTHEWAVEWISCONSINSWATERRESOURCESCANPROVIDEOPPORTUNITIESFORBUSINESSES 40WHDFORETHOUGHTagriculture.Evenduringnormalyearswaterqualityinmanyinlandlakeshassufferedduetourbanandagriculturalstormwaterrunoffcausingthelakestobeclosedforswimmingandotherrecreationalactivities.Inadditionregulationofwaterqualityandquantitycontinuestoincreaseandbecomemorestringentasmoredemandsareplacedonwaterresourcesandwaterqualitystandardsarealsobecomingmorestringent.Stormwaterrunoffrequirementsapplytoalmostallconstructionandpost-constructionsitesandmayeventuallyincorporatenumericstandardsforturbidity.Thereisalsoanincreasedscrutinyoftheimpactofagriculturalrunoffonwaterqualityinriversandlakes.TheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAhasalsotakenarenewedinterestinitsoversightofstateoperationofcleanwaterprograms.In2011theEPAidentied75decienciesintheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesDNRcleanwaterprogramanddirectedtheDNRtoremedytheissuesorrisklosingstateauthorityforoperatingtheprogram.TheDNRrespondedandisworkingtoaddresstheseissues.WisconsinisalsoapartytotheGreatLakes-St.LawrenceRiverBasinWaterResourcesCompactwhichwassignedbyPresidentGeorgeW.Bushin2008.ThisinternationalcompactgovernswaterusewithintheGreatLakesBasinandhasinuencedtheDNRsregulationofwaterusestatewide.Costsforwatermayincreaseascommunitiesmustndnewsourcesandundertakesignicantpublicworksprojectstopumpandcleanwater.BusinessOpportunitiesDespitetheconcernsofcompaniesintheGlobalWaterReport2012notedpreviouslythesamecompaniesidentiedsomepositiveopportunitiesstemmingfromwaterconcerns.Seventy-onepercentoftherespondingcompaniesanincreasefromtheprioryearreportedthatwater-relatedissuesoffersubstantialopportunitiesfortheirbusinessesincludingthesaleofnewproductsorservicesrelatedtowaterissues. REALESTATEENVIRONMENTAL41ManyofthesesameopportunitiesmaybepresentinWisconsinforbusinessesthataddresswaterissues.TheWaterCouncilhasbeenworkingforseveralyearstostrengthentheregionsstatusasahubforwaterinnovationresearchandindustry.InpartduetothesuccessofTheWaterCounciltheregionisnowhometomorethan130watertechnologycompaniesmorethan100academicscientistsandresearchersfocusedonwatersolutionsthelargestfreshwaterresearchinstituteontheGreatLakesandacademicprogramsfocusedonwaterattheUniversityofWisconsinMilwaukeeMarquetteUniversityLawSchoolandtheUniversityofWisconsinWhitewater.MilwaukeehasbeendesignatedasaU.N.GlobalCompactCityrecognizedinternationallyasacenteroffreshwaterexpertise.TheWaterCouncilispoisedtoopenanewwaterresearchandbusinessacceleratorcenterinMilwaukeesWalkersPointneighborhoodin2013toattractandcreatenewbusinessesinthewaterindustryandtoserveasacatalystforthedevelopmentoftheReedStreetYardswatertechnologyresearchparkthatisbeingdevelopedbytheCityofMilwaukee.TheseprogramsandprojectspresentanopportunityforWisconsinbusinessestocollaborateandinnovatenewproductstotakeadvantageofwaterissues.ConclusionWaterissueswillcontinuetopresentchallengesandopportunitiestobusinesses.TohelppositionyourbusinessinthebestpossiblelightconsiderthefollowingWhatimpactcouldwaterissueshaveonyourbusinessincludingwaterqualitywaterquantityorsupply-chainriskfromoodingordroughtCanyourbusinessintroduceproductsorservicesthataddresswaterissuesCanyourbusinesstakeadvantageofopportunitiespresentedbyitslocationincludingthoseofferedbytheTheWaterCounciln 42WHDFORETHOUGHTWrittenbyDanielJ.MiskeThosewhoowncondominiumassociationunitsshouldcareeachtimetheU.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopmentHUDadjustsitslendingrequirements.Since2009therehavebeenanumberofchangeseachofwhichaffectsunitownerseveniftheyarenotinlow-incomehousing.HUDcerticationalsoknownasFederalHousingAdministrationFHAapprovalisnowthestandardformostbankswhendeterminingwhethertoissuelendingtoabuyerwithinanassociation.Thelawhasnothingtodowiththebuyerscreditworthinessbutratherwhethertheassociationmeetsthestandardrelativetovariousitemsincludingreservespastdueassessmentsandinsurancerequirements.Iftheassociationfailstomeetthestandarditwillnotreceivecerticationandbuyerswillnotbeabletoobtainloanstopurchaseunitsattheassociation.Theeffectisobviousthereductionintheunitsvalue.Commonsensesuggeststhatifoneneedstondallcashorverywell-heeledpurchasersasmallerpoolofpotentialbuyersthesalespricewillbeless.Atthetimeofthenancialmeltdownin2008theFHAbackedmortgagesforapproximately5ofthecondominiummarket.FHA-backedmortgagesarenowmorethan50ofthemarket.AlthoughtheguidelinesarewrittensothattheFHAwillnotexceed50oftheloansinanyparticularassociationexceptionshavebeenmade.TheFHAmakesexceptionswhenitdeterminesthatitwouldotherwisebetoodifculttondpurchaserswithinaparticularcommunity.Thereisnorhymeorreasontothissystem.ThemostrecentchangestoHUDrequirementsoccurredonSept.132012.Thechangesreducedtherequirementsrelatingtothenumberofunitsthatcouldbedelinquentonanassociationsassessmentpaymentsandaddedrequirementsrelatingtoemployeedishonestyinsuranceandprojectcerticationapproval.ForthersttimetheFHAwillalsoconsiderHUDapprovalformixedusecondominiumsthathavecommercialspaceof25to35.Thelong-termeffectoftheHUDcerticationprocessisthatassociationsthatdonotdotheworkandspendthemoneyapproximately1250toobtaincerticationwillndthatthevalueoftheirunitswillcontinuetodeclineoratleastnotincreaseatthesamepaceascertiedassociationunitsandthatthetimeunitsspendonthemarketwillbesubstantiallylonger.KeyConsiderations1.NotobtainingHUDcerticationfortheassociationwillcostunitownersmoneywhentheyattempttosellandtimeasunitswilltakelongertosell.2.DespitetheapproximatehalfdozenchangesHUDhasmadetoitsprogramsincethemeltdownof2008morechangeswillfollow.3.BankswillultimatelygetbackinthegameoflendingevenwithoutHUDcertication.Thiswillmostlikelynotbein2013anditisalsoextremelylikelythatthosebankswillnotlendtoassociationsthatdonotmeetHUDcerticationguidelinesevenifthoseassociationshavenotreceivedtheapproval.4.Basedonpoints1through3aboveeveryassociationshouldattempttoobtainHUDapprovalanddevelopaplantobecomeHUDcompliantwithinthenextcoupleyears.nHUDCERTIFICATIONFORCONDOMINIUMASSOCIATIONSWHYUNITOWNERSSHOULDCARE REALESTATEENVIRONMENTAL43 44WHDFORETHOUGHTABOUTTHEAUTHORS ABOUTTHEAUTHORS45GabrielleBaumannAdamsisanattorneyinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheisamemberofthermsBusinessCommercialLitigationandToxicTortLitigationConsultationteams.PriortojoiningWHDMs.AdamswasalawclerkfortheHon.HowardD.McKibbenU.S.DistrictCourtJudgefortheDistrictofNevada.ShealsoservedasaprosecutorfortheMilwaukeeCountyDistrictAttorneysOfce.Ms.AdamsearnedherB.A.fromtheUniversityofMichiganandherJ.D.fromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchool.Ms.Adamsmaybereachedat414-978-5420orgadamswhdlaw.com.TedJ.BarthelisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewhereheisamemberofthermsIntellectualPropertyCounselingProtectionTechnologyLawEmergingEntrepreneurialCompaniesandSustainabilityRenewableEnergyteams.Mr.Barthelisanintellectualpropertyattorneywhohelpsbusinessesprotectandleveragetheirinnovationsforcommercialadvantage.HeisregisteredtopracticebeforetheU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfce.PriortojoiningthermMr.BarthelpracticedlawinChicago.InadditiontohislegalexperienceheworkedasaproductionandresearchchemistatSigma-AldrichChemicalCompany.Mr.BarthelisamilitaryveteranhavingservedasaspaceoperationsofcerintheU.S.AirForcewherehisdutiesinvolvedsatellitelaunchcommandandcontrol.AhighlightofhismilitarycareerwasservingasmissioncontrollerforthesuccessfullaunchofMilstarFlight2abillion-dollarmilitarycommunicationssatellite.Mr.BarthelalsoperformedthroughouttheUnitedStatesasajazzsaxophonistsoloistduringhistenureasamemberoftheU.S.AirForceBand.Mr.BartelstudiedatUniversittFreiburgGermanyandearnedhisB.A.inChemistryGermanandPoliticalSciencecumlaudefromCarrollCollegeandhisJ.D.fromDePaulUniversityCollegeofLawwhereheservedasLeadArticlesEditorfortheDePaulJournalofArtandEntertainmentLaw.HeisadirectoroftheWisconsinIntellectualPropertyLawAssociationamemberofTheWaterCouncilandalecturerfortheUniversityofWisconsin-MilwaukeesMBAProgram.Mr.Barthelmaybereachedat414-978-5317ortbarthelwhdlaw.com.PhillipR.BowerisashareholderinWHDsMadisonofcewhocounselsclientsonenvironmentalcomplianceandriskmanagementassociatedwithbusinessoperationsandtransactionsincludingairpermittingwaterpermittinghazardouswasteandEmergencyPlanningandCommunityRight-to-KnowActissuesandtheinvestigationandremediationofcontaminatedproperties.Mr.Bowersbreadthofexperiencewithenvironmentallawsandengineeringbackgroundtogetherwithhisrelationshipswithtechnicalconsultantsandstateandfederalregulatorsallowshimtoeffectivelyandefcientlyassistclientsindevelopingstrategiestoreachtheirenvironmentalnaturalresourceenergyandsustainabilityobjectives.HeearnedhisB.S.inGeo-EnvironmentalEngineeringwithdistinctionandhisM.S.inMineralProcessingfromThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityandhisJ.D.fromGeorgetownUniversityLawCenterwherehewasSymposiumEditorfortheGeorgetownJournalofLegalEthicsandrecipientoftheSt.ThomasMoreAwardforLegalEthics.HeisafrequentlectureronenvironmentalandrenewableenergytopicsbeforeenvironmentalprofessionaltradegroupsandattorneysincludingtheFederationofEnvironmentalTechnologistsandhelpedimplementhisrmsinternalsustainabilitycommitteethatfocusesonwastereductionenergyconservationandemployeeeducation.HeisactivewiththeAmericanBarAssociationsSectionofEnvironmentEnergyandResourcesandservesastheVice-ChairforMembershipoftheSectionsAirQualityCommittee.Mr.BoweralsoservesasVicePresidentoftheBoardofDirectorsforCommunityGroundWorksaMadisonnonprotthatmanagesTroyGardensandfocusesoneducatingandconnectingindividualstourbanagriculturalandnaturallands.Mr.Bowermaybereachedat608-258-7391orpbowerwhdlaw.com.ElisabethTownsendBridgeisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewhereher30-yearpracticeincludescopyrightunfaircompetitionadvertisingandlicensinglawandrelatedlitigationinadditiontotrademarkandpatentwork.SheearnedherB.A.fromPurdueUniversityandherJ.D.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofNebraskaCollegeofLawwhereshe 46WHDFORETHOUGHTservedasEditoroftheNebraskaLawReview.SheisregisteredtopracticebeforetheU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfce.Ms.BridgeisChairandBoardMemberoftheStateBarofWisconsinsIntellectualPropertyLawSectionChairandBoardMemberoftheStateBarofWisconsinsInternationalPracticeLawSectionandmemberoftheInternationalTrademarkAssociationsNorthAmericanAnti-CounterfeitingSubcommitteeandtheAmericanBarAssociationsTaskForceonP.R.ChinaTrademarkLawAmendments-BadFaithGroup.SheisalsoaBoardMemberofWorldTradeCenterWisconsin.Ms.Bridgemaybereachedat414-978-5532orebridgewhdlaw.com.DanielB.GeraghtyisanattorneyinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewhereheleadsthermsFederalTaxControversyLitigationTeamandfocuseshispracticeoncomplexfederalinternationalandstatetaxissuesinbothplanningandcontroversymatters.Mr.Geraghtyhasrepresentednumerousindividualspartnershipsandcorporationsinawidevarietyofmattersintaxauditsadministrativeappealsandlitigation.Inadditiontocontroversymattershefocusesoncomplexbusinesstransactionsincludingpurchasessalesmergersdivestituresandrestructurings.AspartofhisfocusoninternationaltaxmattersMr.Geraghtyhasassistednumerousclientsinstructuringoffshoreactivitieswhetherthroughexpansionoracquisitionofexistingbusinesses.HehasalsoassistedforeignbusinessesinstructuringtheirU.S.activities.Mr.GeraghtyisalsoaCertiedPublicAccountantCPAhavingachievedatopscoreonthenationalCPAexamination.PriortopracticinglawheworkedasaCPAatapredecessortooneoftheBigFouraccountingrms.Mr.GeraghtyearnedhisB.B.A.summacumlaudefromtheUniversityofWisconsinWhitewaterandhisJ.D.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchoolwherehewaselectedOrderoftheCoif.Mr.Geraghtymaybereachedat414-978-5518ordgeraghtywhdlaw.com.FrankA.GuminaisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewherehecounselsandguidescompaniesthroughavastarrayoflegalissues.Formorethan20yearshehasworkedwithclientstodevelopeffectiveandefcientstrategiestomeetbusinessobjectives.WhileMr.Guminahasexperienceinmanyareasofthelawaffectingbusinesseshisprimaryfocushasbeenrepresentingmanagementinallfacetsoflaborandemploymentlawmatters.Hehasextensiveexperiencecounselingemployersinmyriadindustriesincludingmanufacturinghealthcaretechnologyconstructionhospitalityandtransportation.Mr.Guminahassuccessfullylitigatednumerousemployment-relatedcasesinstateandfederalcourtsthroughoutthecountryincludingco-chairingthedefenseoftherstAmericansWithDisabilitiesActADAjurytrialinthenation.Focusinghispracticeonemploymentdiscriminationmatterstortandcontractclaimsarisingfromtheemploymentrelationshipunfaircompetitionclaimsincludingnon-competeagreementsallfacetsofunionissuesfacingemployersandbenetclaimsMr.GuminaregularlyhandlesmattersbeforethecourtsEqualEmploymentOpportunityCommissionvariousstateagenciestheNationalLaborRelationsBoardandtheU.S.DepartmentofLabor.InadditionheprovidescounseltoemployersonahostofhumanresourcesissuesincludingdisciplinedischargebestpracticesEEOcompliancemanagingtheelectronicworkplacecollectivebargainingwageandhourregulationsADAFMLAworkerscompensationOSHAandreductionsinforce.Mr.GuminahasbeenaguestlaborandemploymentlawpresenteratMarquetteUniversitysLawSchoolandSchoolofBusinessandpresentstailoredin-houseprogramstomanagersandsupervisorsofsmallandlargecompaniesalike.Mr.GuminaearnedhisundergraduatedegreefromtheUniversityofWisconsinMilwaukeeandhisJ.D.cumlaudefromMarquetteUniversityLawSchool.Mr.Guminamaybereachedat414-978-5387orfguminawhdlaw.com.MaryeveHeathisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheleadsthermsWorkersCompensationTeam.Sheconcentratesherpracticeintheareasofworkerscompensationlaborandemploymentlawandlitigation.Formorethan30yearsshehasworkedwithemployerstoachievetheirbusinessgoalsthroughthecreativeutilizationofhumanresourcesandtheaggressivedefenseofclaimsinvolvingworkerscompensationwrongfulterminationworkplace ABOUTTHEAUTHORS47discriminationemployeedishonestyandrelatedissues.Ms.Heathisrecognizedasatenaciousadvocateforherclientsandasanexpertinanalyzingnegotiationandresolvingdisputes.Shehasrenderedcaseassessmentreportsreserveanalysesanddirectivesregardingdefensestrategiesonlitigatedworkerscompensationandemploymentcases.SheearnedherB.A.fromMarquetteUniversityandherJ.D.fromMarquetteUniversityLawSchool.ShealsoiscertiedbytheInsuranceInstituteofAmerica.Ms.Heathmaybereachedat414-978-5342ormheathwhdlaw.com.EdwardJ.HeiserisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewhereheisamemberofthermsConsumerFinancialServicesTeam.Formorethan30yearshehasbeenrecognizedasoneoftheleadingconsumernancelawyersinWisconsinandthroughouttheUnitedStates.HisearlyexperienceasoneofthedraftersoftheWisconsinConsumerActWisconsinscomprehensiveconsumercreditcodecoupledwithhisleadershipinbuildingformsandoperationalmanualsforsomeofWisconsinslargestconsumernancecompanieshasgivenhimtheuniqueabilitytoblendlegalprincipleswithoperationalandmarketplaceunderstanding.Mr.HeisersinsightsandfamiliaritywithconsumernancelawhaveenabledhimtoguideclientswhoprovideconsumercreditthroughthelegalandadministrativeintricaciesofWisconsinlawsandregulations.HehasbeencalleduponbystateandnationalorganizationstorepresentconsumercreditorinterestsnotonlyinWisconsinbutthroughoutthecountry.HerepresentedtheAmericanFinancialServicesAssociationasanofcialobservertotheNationalConferenceofCommissionersonUniformStateLawduringtheveyearrevisiontoArticle9totheUniformCommercialCodeandchairedtheconsumercreditorsgroupreviewingconsumerprovisions.Mr.HeiserearnedhisA.B.fromtheUniversityofMichiganandhisJ.D.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofMichiganLawSchool.HeisChairmanoftheGoverningCommitteeoftheConferenceonConsumerFinanceLawFellowoftheAmericanCollegeofConsumerFinancialServicesLawyersSecretaryoftheConferenceofConsumerFinanceLawandPresidentofitsGoverningCommitteememberoftheBoardofDirectorsofNationalInstituteonConsumerCreditManagementandamemberoftheAmericanFinancialServicesAssociationLawCommittee.Mr.Heisermaybereachedat414-978-5503oreheiserwhdlaw.com.MaryBethHughesisanattorneyinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheworkswithbusinessestoaggressivelydefendworkerscompensationclaims.HerworkerscompensationexperienceincludesrepresentinginsurancecarriersandemployersonbothlargeandsmallclaimsincludingperformingcaseassessmentstryingcasestoanadministrativelawjudgeandpreparingbriefsforreviewbeforetheLaborandIndustryReviewCommissionCircuitCourtCourtofAppealsandSupremeCourt.Shehasrepresentedentitiespayingworkerscompensationbenetsinthird-partycircuitcourtmattersincludingpreparingpleadingsmakingcourtappearancesandparticipatinginmediations.SheearnedherB.A.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofNotreDameandherJ.D.fromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchool.Ms.Hughesmaybereachedat414-978-5326ormhugheswhdlaw.com.TiffanyL.HutchensisanattorneyinWHDsMadisonofcewheresheisamemberofthermsLaborEmploymentTeam.Ms.Hutchensrepresentsbusinessclientsinallaspectsofcomplexemploymentandimmigrationlawmattersincludingwrongfuldischargeclaimsdiscriminationandharassmentavoidancecollectivebargainingagreementswageandhourissuesthepreparationandreviewofemployeehandbooksandcontractsemployment-basedimmigrantandnonimmigrantvisaapplicationsI-9complianceandadvisingclientsinpermanentresidencymattersandapplicationsforU.S.citizenship.Ms.Hutchensattentiontoemployment-andimmigration-relatedissuesinthecontextofherclientsentirebusinessleadstoinnovativepracticalandcost-effectivesolutions.PriortojoiningthermMs.HutchensservedasaJudicialLawClerktotheHon.JeffreyA.ConenintheCivilDivisionoftheMilwaukeeCountyCircuitCourt.Ms.Hutchensalsoworkedataglobalcorporatelawrmdealingwith 48WHDFORETHOUGHTemployment-basedimmigrationissueswhereshesupervisedateamthatfocusedonemployment-basedgreencardlingsforkeyemployees.Ms.HutchesstudiedattheUniversityofSydneyandearnedherB.A.magnacumlaudefromLafayetteCollegeandherJ.D.cumlaudefromNewEnglandSchoolofLawwhereshewasCommentandNoteEditorfortheNewEnglandLawReview.Ms.Hutchensmaybereachedat608-234-6078orthutchenswhdlaw.com.ErinM.KeeseckerisanattorneyinWHDsMadisonofcewheresheisamemberofthermsBusinessCommercialLitigationTeam.Sheprovidesadviceanalysisandsupporttoindividualsbusinessandgovernmententitieswhoarefacingtheprospectoflitigation.Shehashelpedresolvecontractualdisputesbreachofwarrantyclaimsproductsandpremisesliabilityissuespersonalinjuryclaimslandlordtenantdisputeslaborandemploymentclassactionsand1943constitutionalviolationsinbothstateandfederalcourt.Ms.KeeseckerisalsoamemberfothermsHealthCareLawTeamwheresheassistshealthcarefacilitieswithHIPAAandHITECHcomplianceanddefendshealthcareprovidersagainstinvestigationsbyregulatoryagenciessuchastheWisconsinDepartmentofSafetyandProfessionalServices.Ms.KeeseckerearnedherB.M.withhighdistinctionfromtheUniversityofRochestersEastmanSchoolofMusicandherJ.D.magnacumlaudefromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchoolwheresheservedasManagingEditoroftheWisconsinLawReview.Shemaybereachedat608-234-6062orekeeseckerwhdlaw.com.DanielJ.MiskeisashareholderpracticingoutofWHDsMadisonandMilwaukeeofceswhereheleadsthermsCondominiumHOALawTeam.HeconcentrateshispracticeintheareasofWisconsincondominiumhomeownerassociationrealestateandbusinesslaw.Withinthesepracticeareashehandlesdocumentamendmentscollectionscontractsrulesgovernanceandalmostanyotherissuethatwouldarisewithinthisareaoflaw.Mr.MiskeearnedhisB.S.fromMarquetteUniversityandhisJ.D.fromDePaulUniversitySchoolofLaw.HeisaBoardMemberofCommunityAssociationInstituteandamemberoftheMilwaukeeBarAssociationsBenchBarCommittee.Mr.MiskeistheonlyWisconsincondominiumlawyeradmittedintotheCollegeofCommunityAssociationLawyers.HeauthoredthecollectionactionchapterinWestsWisconsinPracticeMethodsofPracticeSeries.Mr.Miskemaybereachedat414-978-5311ordmiskewhdlaw.com.ThomasJ.PienkosisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewhereheisamemberofthermsIntellectualPropertyPracticeGroup.Hehascounseledarangeofclientsonthestrategicprotectionlicensingandenforcementofintellectualpropertyrights.Mr.PienkoshasalsopreparedandprosecutedmanyU.S.andinternationalpatentapplicationsandsecuredpatentrightsforclientsinawidearrayoftechnologiesincludingprintingmanufacturingandcomputer-relatedtechnologies.Hehassupervisedandconductedintellectualpropertyduediligenceeffortsinrelationtoavarietyofcorporatetransactionsandhasdraftedandnegotiatedpatentlicensenon-disclosureandjointdevelopmentagreements.Mr.PienkosearnedhisB.S.M.E.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofNotreDameandhisJ.D.fromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchool.HeisregisteredtopracticebeforetheU.S.PatentandTrademarkOfce.Mr.Pienkosmaybereachedat414-978-5539ortpienkoswhdlaw.com.SverreDavidRoangisashareholderinWHDsMadisonofcetheleaderofWHDsCorporateTransactionTeamandamemberoftheWHDBoardofDirectors.InadditiontohisworkasadealattorneyMr.Roangispassionateaboutworkingwithfamilybusinesses.Hehasanextensivebackgroundinhelpingfamilyandcloselyheldbusinessesnavigatethecomplexbusinesstaxownershipandfamilyissuesinherentinplanningforfuturegenerations.Hisapproachtobusinessplanningenablesfamiliestobuildtruelastingwealththatcangrowandbenetgenerationstocome.HisdeepinterestinthiseldhasledtohimbecomingtheonlyprofessionalinWisconsintoreceivetheFamilyFirmInstitutesCerticateinFamilyWealthAdvisingwhichhelpsprovideMr.Roangwiththeframeworktotacklethecomplex ABOUTTHEAUTHORS49anddynamicissuesinvolved.Clientswhoworkwithhimknowthathewillhelpthemndthebestsolutionstomeettheiruniquefamilyandbusinessgoals.HeearnedhisB.A.withhonorsfromNorthwesternUniversityandhisJ.D.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchool.Mr.Roangmaybereachedat608-234-6079orsroangwhdlaw.com.PamelaM.SchmidtisanattorneyinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheconcentratesherpracticeintheareasofappellateadvocacypersonalinjurydefenseworkparticularlyrelatingtoproductliabilityaswellasthetransportationrecreationandentertainmentindustriesandintellectualpropertylitigation.ShehashandledmorethantwodozenappealsincludinglingappellatebriefsmotionsandpetitionstotheU.S.CourtofAppealsfortheFederalandSeventhCircuitsWisconsinSupremeCourtandWisconsinCourtofAppeals.ThecasesMs.SchmidthashandledhaveinvolvedawiderangeofissuesincludingelectiondisputesdenialofdisabilityclaimsunderERISAbreachesofcontractandpersonalinjury.SheearnedherB.A.withdistinctionfromtheUniversityofWisconsinandherJ.D.fromHarvardLawSchool.Ms.Schmidtmaybereachedat414-978-5439orpschmidtwhdlaw.com.ThomasJ.SpringerisashareholderinWHDsMadisonofcewhereheisco-chairofthermsGovernmentAffairsTeam.Hisprimaryfocusisonstateandfederallegislativeprocesses.Mr.SpringerhassuccessfullyrepresentedstateandnationalrmsindustrytradeorganizationstribalgovernmentsandprofessionalassociationsbeforethestatelegislatureandexecutivebranchaswellastheU.S.Congress.Hisexperienceincludesrepresentingclientsfromindustriesincludinghealthcaretelecommunicationssecuritiesinsurancenancialservicesbuildingconstructionelectricutilitiesandpharmaceuticals.AformerstaterepresentativewhoservedintheWisconsinStateAssemblyforfourtermsMr.Springerhasalsoassistedclientsinsecuringmultimillion-dollarcontractsforbuildingconstructionandmanagementservices.HeearnedhisB.S.fromtheUniversityofWisconsinandhisJ.D.fromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchool.Mr.Springermaybereachedat608-258-7130ortspringerwhdlaw.com.KarenL.TidwallisashareholderinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheisamemberofthermsLitigationPracticeGroupandco-chairoftheTrustEstateFiduciaryLitigationTeam.Ms.Tidwallrepresentsclientsinavarietyofbusinessandcommercialmattersincludingcontractandwarrantydisputesbusinesstortcontestedtrustandestatelitigationandduciarylitigationrepresentingindividualandcorporateduciariesorbeneciaries.Ms.TidwallearnedherB.A.fromtheUniversityofNebraskaOmahaandherJ.D.cumlaudefromCreightonUniversitySchoolofLawwhereshewasamemberandAssistantEditoroftheCreightonUniversityLawReview.SheisamemberoftheEasternDistrictofWisconsinBarAssociationsCivilCommitteeamemberoftheMilwaukeeBarAssociationsJudicialSelectionCommitteeandservesontheBoardofDirectorsoftheWisconsinEqualJusticeFund.Ms.Tidwallmaybereachedat414-978-5411orktidwallwhdlaw.com.MarciVanAdestineisanattorneyinWHDsMilwaukeeofcewheresheisamemberofthermsConsumerFinancialServicesTeam.AsamemberofthisteamMs.VanAdestinecounselsandrepresentsnationalandlocalprovidersofconsumercreditinbothregulatoryandlitigationmatters.ShehasexperiencewiththeWisconsinConsumerActArticle3oftheUCCNegotiableInstrumentsandfederalconsumerprotectionlawsincludingtheTruthinLendingActTILAandRegulationZtheFairCreditReportingActFCRAandtheDodd-FrankAct.Ms.VanAdestineregularlyrepresentsmortgageservicersandhasexperiencewithfederalloanprogramssuchastheHomeAffordableModicationProgramHAMP.Herlitigationexperienceincludesallfacetsofpre-trialpracticeincludingdiscoverydispositivemotionpracticemediationandnegotiatingsettlementagreements.WhileinlawschoolMs.VanAdestineservedasaninterntoJusticeAnnetteKingslandZiegleroftheWisconsinSupremeCourttotheGovernorsOfceofLegalCounselandtotheWisconsinDepartmentofJustice.Shewasalsoamemberofasemi-nalistnationalmocktrialteam.PriortoattendinglawschoolMs.VanAdestineworkedonseveralstatewidecampaignsincludingthecampaignsofWisconsinSupremeCourtcandidates.Shealsoservedasanaidetoa 50WHDFORETHOUGHTU.S.Congressmaninwhichsheresearchedlegislationandeducationpolicy.AdditionallyMs.VanAdestinewasanoriginalmemberofasuccessfulstartuppoliticalconsultingpublicrelationsandgrassrootscampaigningrm.Someofherprojectsincludedworkingwithnationalclientstodevelopandimplementgrassrootsandpublicrelationscampaigns.SheearnedherB.A.inPoliticalScienceandCommunicationArtswithdistinctionfromtheUniversityofWisconsinandherJ.D.cumlaudefromtheUniversityofWisconsinLawSchoolwhereshewaselectedtoOrderoftheCoif.SheisanactivememberoftheAmericanBarAssociationsConsumerFinancialServicesCommitteeandYoungLawyerLiaisontoTruthinLendingSubcommittee.Ms.VanAdestinemaybereachedat414-978-5435ormvanadestinewhdlaw.com.n MILWAUKEEOFFICE555EastWellsStreetSuite1900MilwaukeeWI53202-3819414.273.2100MADISONOFFICE33EastMainStreetSuite300P.O.Box1379MadisonWI53701-1379608.255.4440CHICAGOOFFICE161NorthClarkStreetSuite4700ChicagoIL60601-3206312.523.2080www.whdlaw.com2013WhyteHirschboeckDudekS.C.Allrightsreserved.